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A timeline of the first four crusades including themes, descriptions of events, change and continuity.
11 months ago
Henry IV became HRE
Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV
Pope Gregory under pressure from leaders in Rome
Pope Gregory VII dies
Investiture contest shows Popes were becoming more powerful over secular rulers
Question as to whether the Pope had authority over kings - investiture contest
Pope Victor III takes over from Gregory VII.
Pope Urban II emerges as the new Pope
Pope Urban II opens up diplomatic relations with the Byzantine emperor, Alexios Komnenus.
Establish idea of army fighting for the papacy. Papacy was getting stronger.
By now, two different branches of Islam had control of vast swathes of land in the Near East
Sunni vs Shi'a. Muslim disunity.
Rise of the Seljuk Turks
Malik Shah's (Seljuk Turks) brother, Tutush, dies.
Struggle for power between Danishmends and Kilij Arslan would have consequences of Crusader progression across Anatolia.
Vizier of Egypt, al-Afdal, successfully took Jerusalem for the Fatimids.
Byzantine empire under threats. Normans took Sicily and parts of Southern Italy.
Byzantines defeated at the battle of Manzikert.
Defeat lead to lack of manpower.
Alexios Komnenos takes action in Byzantium
Alexios Komnenus ready to deal with Pechenegs but unsuccessful
Alexios negotiates with Turks
Malik Shah dies
Council of Piacenza
Urban lifted Alexios' excommunication
Urban wanted to heal schism between two churches.
Council of Clermont
Urban II had stabalised position in Rome
CALL FOR THE FIRST CRUSADE
Pope Urban II's motives
Motives of the Crusaders
Floods, pestilence and famine
Peasant's Crusade - disaster
Hugh of Vermandois first Crusader to set off.
Godfrey of Bouillon reaches Constantinople.
Godfrey swore oath to Alexios
Bohemond leaves for First Crusade
Bohemond reaches Constantinople.
Raymond of Toulouse leaves
Raymond of Toulouse arrives in Constantinople.
Two Roberts (Normandy and Flanders) and Stephen of Blois set off.
Stephen of Blois and Robert of Normandy finally reach Constantinople.
Siege of Nicaea
Battle of Dorylaem
March to Antioch
Bohemond Military expertise
Siege of Antioch
Stephen of Blois' desertion at Antioch
March to Jerusalem begins
Crusaders arrived outside Jerusalem. Jerusalem is taken.
3 things helped the crusaders
Impacts of the First Crusade
The origins of conflict and the First Crusade
The foundation of new states and the Second Crusade
Jostling for the King of Jerusalem
News of victory sets off new Crusade of 1101.
Battle of Harran
Bohemond tours Europe. Crusade on Byzantium
Bohemond of Antioch dies
Crusade of King Sigurd of Norway
Small scale crusades helped increase the Kingdom
Help from maritime states
Castle construction began
Baldwin I dies.
Battle of the Field of Blood
Jihad imagery emerging
Baldwin II crowned
Baldwin held in captivity (1123-24)
Baldwin fought and won A'zaz, Zerdana, Damascus and Ascalon.
Baldwin successful in Raphania and Antioch.
Baldwin II dies
Fulk, Melisede and young Baldwin crowned joint rulers
Baby Baldwin is born to Fulk and Melisende
Templars become active
Council of Nablus
Clergy allowed to bear arms
Hospitallers gained fortunes and became established
Other military orders
Alexios Komnenus dies
John II attempt to gain Antioch
John II tries to gain Antioch again
John II dies
Relationship between Byzantines and Franks not good
Roger of Antioch coalition
Military alliances with Muslims possible
Duqaq of Damascus dies
Ridwan of Aleppo alliance with Tancred
Baghdad helps Tughtakin to besiege Edessa.
Delegation from Aleppo called for help
as-Sulami calls for Jihad
Zengi becomes governer of Mosul
Zengi first Muslim leader to realise Jihad Rise of Jihad under Zengi
Joscelin leaves Edessa to spend Christmas at Turbessel.
Zengi takes Edessa 1144
Counter attack at Edessa
Shockwaves through Europe
Pope Eugenius III calls the 2nd Crusade
The 2nd Crusade
Louis VII response
Conrad III response
Meeting at Vezelay
Roger becomes King of Sicily
Louis arrived in Antioch
Council at Palmera
Siege of Damascus
Impacts of the Second Crusade
Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine divorce
The Muslim counter-crusade and crusader states
Rise of Nureddin in Syria
Alliances between Muslims and Crusaders
Battle of Inab
Unur and Saphadin die
Series of earthquakes
Treaty between Nurredin and Manuel
Caliph, al-Hafz dies
Franks capture Ascalon
Nurredin turns attention to Egypt
Shawar becomes vizier in Egypt
Shawar asks Amalric for help
Jihad: strength of opposition
Shawar and Amalric meet again to rid Shirkuh.
Saladin put in charge of Egypt
Frankish Byzantine assault launched on Egypt
Growth of jihad under Nureddin
Melisende still holding onto power.
Manuel married Maria
Baldwin III dies
Amalric briefly holds Alexandria
Amalric marries Maria Comnenus
Kingdom was getting poor and weak
Baldwin IV dies
Baldwin V dies.
Joscelin II of Edessa dies
Reynald begins attack on Cyprus
Frank and Byz relationship strained
Manuel sets off for Antioch
Baldwin III and Manuel meet.
Another Frankish Byzantine assault on Egypt
Amalric asks Manuel for help again
Lack of support for the Franks
Battle of Myriokephalon
Manuel Komnenos dies
End to Byz hopes of gaining Anatolia
Andronikos Komnenus steps in
Byzantine protection for Franks was over.
Latin West infighting
Count Thierry of Flanders helps east
Thierry of Flanders returns to Outremer
Mission of AB Frederick of Tyre
Philip of Flanders goes to Outremer
King Louis VII dies
Pope prompted into action - call for Crusade
Saladin's strength rising
Patriarch of Heraclius call for crusade
Birth of Baldwin V
Latin Kingdoms diverge into 2 factions
Raymond and Bohemond III of Antioch advance on Jerusalem
Raymond III forbidden from entering Jerusalem
Battle of Montgisard
Kingdom lacked unity and strength
Baldwin hands regency to Guy
Raymond III of Tripoli outmanoeuvred
Court party wins
Raymond of Tripoli captured
Templar help and actual victory for Crusaders
Castle at Jacob's Ford
Egypt beginning to rival Nureddin
Battle at Horns of Hamah
Saif-ad-Din and as-Salih die
Outremer fairly stable.
Battle of Hattin
William of Tyre
Saladin takes Jerusalem
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