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CHINA TIMELINE - Jia Hao Humanities
4 months ago
Madjedbebe, rock shelter (65000BCE)
Mungo Man (42000BCE)
Willandra Footprints (20000BCE)
Hisarlik (possible City Of Troy) (3000BCE)
Akrotiri, Thera (Santorini) (1500BCE)
tutankhamun tomb (1323BCE)
New excavations of a rock shelter near Kakadu National Park indicate humans reached Australia at least 65,000 years ago — up to 18,000 years earlier than archaeologists previously thought. Many scientists already accepted that the shelter, called Madjedbebe, was home to the earliest evidence of humans in Australia.
Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for the generally agreed site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia). The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles.
Remarkable human footprints walked straight out of the last ice age when they were re-discovered at Willandra Lakes in 2003 during a routine survey for archaeological sites. The footprints may have been exposed for some time before 2003, and some local Aboriginal people say they already knew they were there.
Research has revealed that the well preserved footprints are about 20,000 years old, and can tell some amazing stories. They're the oldest footprints ever found in Australia and the largest set of ice age footprints in the world.
Mungo Lady and Mungo Man are perhaps the most important human remains ever found in Australia. Their discovery re-wrote the ancient story of this land and its people and sent shock-waves around the world. These 42,000 year old ritual burials are some of the oldest remains of modern humans (Homo sapiens) yet found outside of Africa. Mungo Lady is the oldest known cremation in the world, representing the early emergence of humanity's spiritual beliefs.
Mungo Lady and Mungo Man are particularly special to their Aboriginal descendants who still live around the Willandra Lakes area. The Paakantji, Ngyiampaa and Mutthi Mutthi people are proud of what the ancient remains prove of their endurance in the land and survival from the distant past. Many believe that Mungo Man and Mungo Lady returned to teach something to all people.
The return of Mungo Lady and Mungo Man put Lake Mungo on the world map. They led to the establishment of Mungo National Park and the recognition of the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area as a place that is important to all humanity.
Altamira was the first European cave for which prehistoric origin of the paintings was suggested and promoted by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola. He published his research with the support of Juan Vilanova y Piera in 1880 to public acclaim. Nonetheless a bitter public controversy among experts ensued and continued until 1902, as reports of similar findings of prehistoric paintings in the region had accumulated and evidence could no longer be rejected.
Ötzi the Iceman is special for a number of reasons: (1) Ötzi is the oldest human mummy ever found preserved by freezing. (2) The Iceman's possessions and clothing have given scientists a better look at what life was during the Copper Age in Europe. (3) He has become part of our popular culture. He is the subject of many books and even a play.
Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, pronounced Greek: [akroˈtiri]) is a Minoan Bronze Age settlement on the volcanic Greek island of Santorini (Thera). The settlement was destroyed in the Theran eruption about 1627 BC and buried in volcanic ash, which preserved the remains of fine frescoes and many objects and artworks. The settlement has been suggested as a possible inspiration for Plato's story of Atlantis. The site has been excavated since 1967.
Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became Pharaoh and reigned for approximately ten years. In historical terms, Tutankhamun's significance stems from the fact that his reign was close to the apogee of Egypt as a world power and from his rejection of the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor and father, Akhenaten. Secondly, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered by Carter almost completely intact—the most complete ancient Egyptian royal tomb ever found.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archaeology.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture.
Mesolithic Period, also called Middle Stone Age, ancient cultural stage that existed between the Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age), with its chipped stone tools, and the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age), with its polished stone tools. Most often used to describe archaeological assemblages from the Eastern Hemisphere, the Mesolithic Period is broadly analogous to the Archaic culture of the Western Hemisphere.
Mesolithic material culture is characterized by greater innovation and diversity than is found in the Paleolithic. Among the new forms of chipped stone tools were microliths, very small stone tools intended for mounting together on a shaft to produce a serrated edge. Polished stone was another innovation that occurred in some Mesolithic assemblages.
The Chalcolithic period, or Copper Age, was an era of transition between the stone tool-using farmers of the Neolithic and the metal-obsessed civilisations of the Bronze Age. The Copper Age was really a phenomenon of the eastern Mediterranean regions, and occurred from roughly 3500 to 2300 BCE.
The overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make bronze alloy.
The Bronze Age was a time of extensive use of metals and of developing trade networks (See Tin sources and trade in ancient times). A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik (Serbia), although the civilization is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age. The dating of the foil has been disputed.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World.
As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy (iron working), more specifically from carbon steel.
THE ROMAN KINGDOM (753BCE-509BCE) The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding, traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in Central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC.
ROMAN REPUBLIC (509BCE-27BCE) The Roman Republic was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
ROMAN EMPIRE(27BCE-476CE) The Roman Empire , was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilisation, characterised by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world 100 BC – AD 400, with New Rome becoming the largest around AD 500, and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time).
The 500-year-old republic which preceded it was severely destabilised in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC.
Meteoric Jewelry (3200BCE)
The Meteoric Jewelry were discovered in 1911 from two different tombs in a cemetery. The metal beads which are arguably the oldest iron artifacts on the planet were made by hammering and rolling the meteorite metal into tiny forms. These were mainly used on necklaces with other fine materials like gold and agate.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.
Stone Hedge (3000BCE)
Stonehenge was a place of burial from its beginning to its zenith in the mid third millennium B.C. The cremation burial dating to Stonehenge's sarsen stones phase is likely just one of many from this later period of the monument's use and demonstrates that it was still very much a domain of the dead.
Cave of Altamira, Spain (20000BCE-14000BCE)
Upper Palaeolithic period (50000BCE-20000BCE)
Mesolithic period (20000BCE-10000BCE)
Copper Age (3500BCE-2300BCE)
Bronze Age (3700BCE-500BCE)
Iron Age (800BCE-43BCE)
Roman Kingdom (753BCE-509BCE), Roman Republic (509BCE-27BCE), Roman Empire (27BCE-476CE)
Middle Palaeolithic period (60000BCE-50000BCE)
Great Pyramid of Giza Construction (2580BCE-2560BCE)
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