March 32, 2023
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Germany 1930-1945 Annotated Timeline - Ayla Saruhan
⟶ Updated 21 Nov 2018 ⟶
List of edits
The Great Depression Germany’s economy was already suffering since they had to pay reparations as part of the Treaty of Versailles. The U.S. made a deal to provide Germany with money so that they could pay off their debt but then the U.S. stock market crashed and the U.S. wanted all their money back from Germany. Germany started printing a lot of money in order to pay back the U.S. and then their currency became close to worthless which led to everyone starving and becoming desperate.
Unemployment rate peaks in 1932 at over 30% Many people were poor and desperate because they didn’t have jobs and even those that had jobs were struggling financially. Hitler promised the people that if they elected him as chancellor he would fix the unemployment rate. People who were saving money for years realized they were now poor because of inflation.
Hitler elected as chancellor of Germany Hitler promised the people bread, work, and money and in turn, he was elected as Chancellor of Germany. This led to the rise of the Nazi party in Germany.
Germany leaves the League of Nations Germany leaves the LoN because the Western countries don’t meet their needs/demands. This led to Germany’s military buildup, which broke international agreements.
German President, Hindenburg, dies and Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany As a dictator, with no figurehead in Germany other than himself, Hitler has absolute power over Germany due to the Enabling Act of 1933.
Germany announces that their army will be expanded. Hitler announces that the German army will be expanded, including the creation of the German air force, known as Luftwaffe. This directly breaks the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Rhineland is re-occupied by Hitler and the Nazis. Hitler reoccupies the demilitarized Rhineland which is against the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles.
Kristallnacht German Nazi leaders went around during the night and destroyed Jewish business, synagogues, and homes. Later on the Nazi’s would demand an “atonement tax” to be paid by the Jewish community for the damage. On this night, around 30,000 Jewish males were rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
Hitler takes over Czechoslovakia. Hitler invaded and took over Czechoslovakia and broke the Munich agreement, an agreement Germany had signed with France, and Great Britain only a year ago. This led to the French and British leaders believing that Hitler couldn’t be trusted and that the French and British armies would have to be stopped by force.
Hitler invades Poland. Hitler invades Poland using Blitzkrieg tactics (lightning tactics). Poland fought back but was quickly occupied by Germany. Later one of the biggest concentration camps to exist, Auschwitz, was built in Poland around where around 1.1 million people were killed. Two days later, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany and triggered the start of WWII.
Battle of Britain begins. British and German air forces fight in the sky over the U.K. U.K. won this battle in the skies and defeated the German Luftwaffe.
Operation Barbarossa Nazi military campaign to invade Soviet Russia, 3 million German troops invade Soviet Russia. This broke the German-Soviet non-aggression pact that was made in 1939. The fact that the Soviets beat the German troops in the campaign was a signal of a turning point in the war.
Battle of Stalingrad When the Soviets successfully defended the city of Stalingrad and stopped the advance of the German army and was a crucial turning point in the war. This turned the tables of the war and gave the advantage to the Allied powers.
The Battle of Kursk Germany’s last chance to fight back and regain control of the Eastern front of the war. They had an elaborate plan with artillery, heavy tanks, and air forces but when the attack got postponed, it gave the Soviets time to prepare for the attack. Both sides experienced heavy casualties but in the end the Soviets’ Red Army came out on top.
Hitler commits suicide Hitler commits suicide while in his bunker, which leads to Germany surrendering 2 days later that ends the war in Europe. Leads to the Nuremberg trials in November.
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