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steam engine timeline
4 months ago
4 months ago
Evangelista & Torricelli discovered that the atmosphere has weight
Otto von Guericke performed an experiment in which 2 copper hemispheres were put together and all of the air was pumped out. The sphere containing vacuum could not be pulled apart, even by two horses. These hemispheres are referred to as the Magdeburg hemispheres.
Denis Papin used steam to create vacuum creating a piston and accidentally inventing the pressure cooker. He also put safety measures into both preasure cooker and piston. When internal pressure got to high, the lid would flap open to let pressure out. Papin never actually built his piston, only designed it, but his design contributed to the design of later steam engines.
Thomas Savery creates a pump that condenses steam in a cylinder, creating a mine pump. HOW IT WORKS: A vessel was filled with steam through a pipe, then water is showered on the vessel to cool it, making the steam condense and creating vacuum. The water is sucked out through another pipe and put into a boiler. The process then starts again. Nicknamed "The Miner's Friend", it's purpose was to make mining processes more efficient.
Thomas Newcomen invented the first modern steam engine that ran on the atmospheric principle. It worked with a pistol in a cylinder connected to an arm that was connected to a pump. This pushed the piston up. Similar to Savery’s model, water was sprayed in the cylinder, making steam condense, creating a vacuum. This pushed the piston down, lifting the pump rod on the other side of the arm up, thus lifting the water. Newcomen's model was meant to satisfy the need to pump floodwater out of mines.
James Watt is presented with Newcomen's engine
James Watt patents Newcomen's design for the steam engine.
James Watt & Matthew Boulton begin to mass produce engines
Watt made Newcomen’s design more efficient by adding features to allow for rotary motion. Watt introduced the concept of rotary motion in engines through this. The rotary motion in gear was nicknamed the "Sun & Planet" gear. Watt is also the first to use a seperate condencer to push a piston down a cylinder.
The unit "Horsepower" is invented Horsepower = 500 foot pounds per second
Watt invented steam heating for his own office
Video attached High pressure steam engines are used in locomotives in Britain
Steamships are now on water
Richard Trevithick’s attention was directed to high-pressure steam engines after witnessing a demonstration Richard Trevithick was a Cornish scientist.
Trevithick builds high pressure steam engine. These high pressure engines are more efficient and lighter. These engines were named the "Cornish Engine" after Trevithick's ethnicity. Trevithick also modufied the design so that the gilders will be horizontal instead of veritcal.
Video attached Penydarren Tramroad in South Wales is the world’s 1st steam railway
Watt modifies Newcomen’s design to have a cylinder sealed at both ends. This replaces the work of the atmosphere with the power of steam. He also added steam both below and above the piston, making a double acting engine, which does double the work. This engine was in high demand from the textile industry.
HOW DOES A STEAM ENGINE WORK? The steam engine is based on the process of delivering heat energy that results in a phase change that results in mechanical work. Heated water creates steam, which pushes pistons, creating mechanical work. The steam loses pressure, and is either released into the atmosphere or condensed and pumped back into boilers and the process starts over again.
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