Soviet Union (dec 30, 1922 – dec 26, 1991)
Since the Russian Revolution, the political party in charge of the country had adopted a communist ideology. Communism had been developed by a man named Karl Marx in the mid-19th Century, and involved the idea of creating a happier, stateless society that would not rely on money or a social class system. This would be achieved by making the "means of production" - such as equipment, land, materials, and energy - commonly owned by everyone, and not by private companies.
By the 1920s four major republics in Eastern Europe had adopted communism as their government, the largest of which was Russia. It was then in December 1922 that these four republics signed a treaty that completely unified them into one enormous state, known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
This new Soviet Union initially composed of the four republics, but over the following decades would eventually be made up of 15 different nations that would join the USSR, with it's capital in the city of Moscow.
Eventually, the loss of the war in Afghanistan, and the reunification of Germany meant that the beginning of the 1990s signaled the decline of the Soviet Union. Over the decades, they had boasted the largest military in the world, the second largest economy, and the first nation to put a man in space. But now, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was starting to collapse. Since his leadership began in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev had made significant changes and reforms across the nation, including allowing public access to information after decades of government censorship. Gorbachev also signed a treaty with the US president to get rid of some of their nuclear weapons, allowed Russian citizens freedom of speech, and also refused to get involved with the internal conflicts of other Soviet states.
These reforms and others eventually caused a number of states to begin declaring their independence from the Soviet Union, with Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, all becoming fully independent nations by September 1991. Despite Gorbachev's attempts to keep a loose Union together, the Soviet parliament eventually drew up a treaty to dissolve the nation once and for all. On the 25th December 1991, Gorbachev resigned as President of the USSR and on the following day, the Soviet Union officially came to an end. In its place were left 15 individual countries, the largest of which was Russia, and the smallest of which was Armenia.
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History of Human Civilization
This is a rough history of human migration, advancement, and...