Holy Roman Empire (feb 2, 962 – aug 6, 1806)
Back in the year 800, the Pope of the Catholic Church appointed Frankish King Charlemagne the new "Emperor" of Rome as an offence to the Byzantines due to terrible relations that had broke down between the Pope and the Byzantine Empire. This position of Emperor was passed down through Charlemagne's descendents, and after the three-way split of the Frankish Empire the crown was disputed by different rulers in Middle Francia and eventually the Kingdom of Italy. By the 960s the King of East Francia, named Otto was convinced he was the rightful ruler of any "Roman Empire" that existed. He associated himself with the Catholic Church in Italy and eventually in 962 Pope John XII crowned Otto as the new Emperor of Rome.
Otto immediately became ruler of a loose confederation of hundreds of Germanic territories and small kingdoms including those of what-is-now Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, and the northern half of Italy. This new political state was termed the "Holy Roman Empire".
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