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Germany declares war on Russia; Russia enters World War 1
Tsar Alexander II is assassinated by a member of the radical group People’s Will. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III, who enacts anti-terrorism measures that curb civil rights and freedom of the press.
Lenin sends a telegram to communists in Penza, Central Russia, complaining about uprisings in the area and calling for the public execution of 100 kulaks (wealthy peasants).
An armistice between Russia and the Central Powers is signed, and Russian leaves World War I.
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates and also removes his son from the succession. A Provisional Government is formed to replace the tsarist government.
Tsar Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks.
October Manifesto – Tsar Nicholas II promises civil liberties (such as freedom of speech) and an elected parliament (Duma).
Russian minister of war Alexander Kerensky launches an offensive against Austria-Hungary forces. Although the Russian effort is initially successful, the soldiers soon refuse to leave their trenches and fight due to low morale caused by the Revolution. Many soldiers return home to take part in redistribution of land.
Tsar Alexander II passes the Emancipation Edict, ending serfdom in Russia (but keeps peasants tied to the land through continuing labor obligations).
Tsar Alexander III dies after a sudden illness; his son Nicholas II assumes the throne.
Lenin dies, leading to a power struggle within the party. Stalin emerges as Party leader. His rival Leon Trotsky is dismissed, then exiled and finally murdered in 1940.
Stalin is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty - Russia ends its participation in the First World War. Bolshevik Russia loses one-third of the old empire’s population, one-third of its railway network, half its industry, three-quarters of its supplies of iron ore, nine-tenths of its coal resources and much of its food supplies.
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Pogroms against Jews spread across the Russian Empire, leading to mass emigration of the Jewish population.
Famine in Russia kills between 375,000 and 400,000 and affects millions more.
Communist parties form across the world.
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