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13 Dec 2017
The art of grinding lenses is developed in Italy and spectacles are made to improve eyesight.
Dutch lens grinders makes the first microscope by placing two lenses in a tube.
Robert made various insections and published his results. With his observations he described how a cork can float on water.
A man called Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a simple microscope with only one lens. With this he looked at blood, insects and many other objects. He was first to describe cells and bacteria.
Microscopes are improved by using different types of glass
Joseph Jackson Lister reduces the problem with spherical aberration by showing that several weak lenses used together at certain distances gave good magnification without blurring the image.
Ernst Abbe formulates a mathematical theory correlating resolution to the wavelength of light. Abbes formula make calculations of maximum resolution in microscopes possible.
Richard Zsigmondy develops the ultramicroscope and is able to study objects below the wavelength of light.
Frits Zernike invents the phase-contrast microscope that allows the study of colorless and transparent biological materials
Ernst Ruska develops the electron microscope. The ability to use electrons in microscopy greatly improves the resolution and greatly expands the borders of exploration.
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level.
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