September 15, 2020
For educational institutions
Battle of Hattin
⟶ Updated 29 Nov 2018 ⟶
List of edits
13 Sep 2018
Timeline of the consequences of the Second Crusade and the Muslim Counter Crusade
30 Nov 2018
The Third Crusade
15 Nov 2018
The British Mandate
3 Nov 2018
First arab Israeli war
21 Feb 2019
La transición a la democracia
7 Nov 2018
29 Oct 2018
The counter crusade
Saladin marched to Transjordan to meet Egyptian forces. Raided Kerak & Montreal.
Franks = little reaction to Saladin’s spring raids.
al Afdal led spying & raiding parties across Jordan, tested Tiberias’s defences. Keukburi led mounted assault force of 7000 to scout Franks muster point at Saffuriya. Defeated Templars at Cresson buoyed Muslim morale
Few Templars & Hospitallers travelling through Galilee decided to attack. 130 knights, 300 infantry killed/captured. Templar Master, Gerard de Ridefort escaped. Master of Hospital killed. Muslim invasion now clear. Guy & Raymond reconciled, Raymond broke off contact with Saladin.
Saladin marched to Hauran. Advanced to Ashtara. Joined by Taqi al-Din, returned from N Syria.
created 3 main contingents: 1 Under Taqi al Din (right flank) 2 Under Keukburi (left flank) 3 Under Saladin (central force)
Guy amassed Christian army at Saffuriya. Issued general call to arms due to huge size of Saladin’s army. Left Palestine’s fortresses garrisoned by bare minimum of soldiers. Yet heavily outnumbered. If lost battle, Kingdom undefended.
Saladin crossed Jordan, invaded Palestine. Aim: draw Franks away from safety of Saffariya into full scale pitched battle on ground of S’s choosing. Tested Franks with raids.
Saladin set trap: Dawn assault on weakly defended Tiberias. Only citadel held out, Raymond of Tripoli’s wife trapped inside.
Saladin left a small force at Tiberias. blocked Franks’ path in open plain of Kafr Sabt. Ordered wells in region to be filled in. own water supply from spring of Kafr Sabt Only spring at village of Hattin remained. Saladin had approaches to this heavily guarded. Saladin’s contingent blocked Franks’ advance. Keukburi & Taqi al-Din took Turan & block a Latin retreat. Franks now surrounded on Horns of Hattin.
Raymond advised caution: avoid confrontation w/ large force even if fall of Tiberias w/ his wife inside. S’s force would dissolve over time --> could recapture Galilee Reynald & Gerard advised: ignore traitor Raymond + advice = cowardly. Move to relieve Tiberias. Main factor in decision? Guy feared derision & demotion as in 1183. Raymond of Tripoli in vanguard, Templars in rear, infantry screening cavalry. Guy’s aim: reach Tiberias or Galilean sea
Guy continued to march eastwards. Underestimated Saladin’s manpower. Guy hesitated - full frontal assault may have let them break through to water but Guy pitched camp in entirely waterless indefensible position. Surrounded so close by Muslims could talk to them, desperate thirst.
Saladin let Franks continue east. Waited sun to dehydrate them. Burned scrubland. Harrassed Franks with skirmishers. Noon: bombarded w/ arrows. Opened gaps in Frankish flanks. Taqi al-Din’s forces parted to defuse Raymond’s charge.
Smoke = some knights & infantry surrender. Arrows = panicking infantry lost formation. Raymond launched charge at Taqi al-Din. Let through: Raymond, Balian of Ibelin & small group of knights escaped. Reduced Latins’ morale. Franks charged in desperation - Guy beat path to higher ground on Horns of Hattin. Rallied troops to True Cross, pitched tent, prepared knights for charge at Saladin. Twice came close to Saladin, but tent fell. Remaining knights captured w/ True Cross. 1000s killed
Saladin called Guy & Reynald to his tent. Saladin offered conversion to Islam. Reynald refused. Saladin rose to face him & cut off his head. Guy was led away to captivity.
100-200 Templars & Hospitallers brought before Saladin. Some accepted conversion to Islam - rest murdered. Erected triumphal dome on Horns of Hattin.
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