June 30, 2021
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 2 Sep 2017 ⟶
List of edits
First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".
Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas or "inflammable air".
Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume)
Robert Boyle produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
"New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by Robert Boyle.
Denis Papin – safety valve
Nicolas Lemery showed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air
Joseph Black confirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat
Henry Cavendish published in "On Factitious Airs" a description of "dephlogisticated air" by reacting zinc metal with hydrochloric acid and isolated a gas 7 to 11 times lighter than air.
Joseph Priestley isolated and categorized oxygen.
Felice Fontana discovers the water gas shift reaction
Antoine Lavoisier gave hydrogen its name (Gk: hydro = water, genes = born of) Jacques Charles made the first flight with his hydrogen balloon "La Charlière". Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace measured the heat of combustion of hydrogen using an ice calorimeter.
Jean-Pierre Blanchard, attempted a dirigible hydrogen balloon, but it would not steer. The invention of the Lavoisier Meusnier iron-steam process, generating hydrogen by passing water vapor over a bed of red-hot iron at 600 °C.
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier built the hybrid Rozière balloon.
Charles's law (gas law, relating volume and temperature)
Jan Rudolph Deiman and Adriaan Paets van Troostwijk using an electrostatic machine and a Leyden jar for the first electrolysis of water.
William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle decomposed water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis with a voltaic pile. Johann Wilhelm Ritter duplicated the experiment with a rearranged set of electrodes to collect the two gases separately.
Humphry Davy discovers the concept of the Fuel Cell.
François Isaac de Rivaz built the de Rivaz engine, the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
Thomas Forster observed with a theodolite the drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas" Gay-Lussac's law (gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
Amedeo Avogadro – Avogadro's law a gas law
Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery"
Goldsworthy Gurney demonstrated limelight. Döbereiner's Lamp a lighter invented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner. Goldsworthy Gurney devised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
Michael Faraday invented the rubber balloon.
Thomas Drummond built the Drummond Light. Samuel Brown tested his internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
Michael Faraday published Faraday's laws of electrolysis. Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron – Ideal gas law
John Frederic Daniell invented a primary cell in which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
Christian Friedrich Schönbein published the principle of the fuel cell in the "Philosophical Magazine". William Robert Grove developed the Grove cell.
William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
Eugene Bourdon – Bourdon gauge (manometer)
Etienne Lenoir made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
August Wilhelm von Hofmann invents the Hofmann voltameter for the electrolysis of water.
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe – Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
Jules Verne – The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used"
Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs launch the airship La France.
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
Ludwig Mond and Carl Langer coined the name fuel cell and tried to build one running on air and Mond gas.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald experimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
Jackson D.D. and Ellms J.W., hydrogen production by microalgae (Anabaena) Leon Teisserenc de Bort carries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons.
Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of hydrogenation with the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
James Dewar liquefied hydrogen by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London.
James Dewar collected solid hydrogen for the first time.
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin launched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
Wilhelm Normann introduced the hydrogenation of fats.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii published "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices"
Lane hydrogen producer
Count Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the Zeppelin LZ5. Linde–Frank–Caro process
The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the Zeppelin LZ7. Fritz Haber patented the Haber process.
The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the Zeppelin LZ13.
Niels Bohr explains the Rydberg formula for the spectrum of hydrogen by imposing a quantization condition on classical orbits of the electron in hydrogen
The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leuna in Germany.
Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna J. B. S. Haldane envisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future "great power stations where during windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
Wolfgang Pauli and Erwin Schrödinger show that the Rydberg formula for the spectrum of hydrogen follows from the new quantum mechanics Partial oxidation, Vandeveer and Parr at the University of Illinois used oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas. Cyril Norman Hinshelwood described the phenomenon of chain reaction. Umberto Nobile made the first flight over the north pole with the hydrogen airship Norge
Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer achieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
Rudolf Erren – Erren engine – GB patent GB364180 – Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel
Eugene Wigner and H.B. Huntington predicted metallic hydrogen.
The Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg was destroyed by fire. The Heinkel HeS 1 experimental gaseous hydrogen fueled centrifugal jet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine The first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service at Dayton, Ohio.
The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline Rhine-Ruhr. Igor Sikorsky from Sikorsky Aircraft proposed liquid hydrogen as a fuel.
Rudolf Erren – Erren engine – US patent 2,183,674 – Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel Hans Gaffron discovered that algae can switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
The first mass application of hydrogen in internal combustion engines: Russian lieutenant Boris Shelishch in the besieged Leningrad has converted some hundreds cars "GAZ-AA" which served posts of barrage balloons of air defense.
Liquid hydrogen is tested as rocket fuel at Ohio State University. Arne Zetterström describes hydrox
Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford measure the small energy shift (the Lamb shift) between the 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 levels of hydrogen, providing a great stimulus to the development of quantum electrodynamics
Hydrodesulfurization (Catalytic reforming is commercialized under the name Platforming process)
Underground hydrogen storage
Ivy Mike, the first successful test of a nuclear explosive based on hydrogen (actually, deuterium) fusion Hydrogen maser Non-Refrigerated transport Dewar
W. Thomas Grubb modified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the Lockheed CL-400 Suntan project. The specifications for the U-2 a double axle liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued.
Leonard Niedrach devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell Allis-Chalmers demonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor.
Francis Thomas Bacon built the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell forklift
RL-10 liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket engine first flight
Allis-Chalmers built a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel.
The first commercial use of a fuel cell in Project Gemini. Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell golf carts.
General Motors presents Electrovan, the world's first fuel cell automobile. Slush hydrogen J-2 (rocket engine) liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
Akira Fujishima discovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for photocatalysis in the photoelectrochemical cell. Hydride compressor
Nickel hydrogen battery John Bockris or Lawrence W. Jones coined the term hydrogen economy
The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in Isbergues Linear compressor
John Bockris – Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative – ISBN 0-470-08429-4
HM7B rocket engine
Space Shuttle Main Engine first flight
The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern became operational.
Vulcain rocket engine
Anastasios Melis discovered that the deprivation of sulfur will cause algae to switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen
Type 212 submarine
Peter Toennies demonstrates superfluidity of hydrogen at 0.15 K
The first type IV hydrogen tanks for compressed hydrogen at 700 bar (10000 PSI) were demonstrated.
Type 214 submarine The first hydrail locomotive was demonstrated in Val-d'Or, Quebec.
DeepC is an autonomous underwater vehicle propelled by an electric motor powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.
Ionic liquid piston compressor
The first commercial 2 megawatt power to gas installation in Falkenhagen comes online for 360 cubic meters of hydrogen per hour hydrogen storage into the natural gas grid.
The Japanese fuel cell micro combined heat and power (mCHP) ENE FARM project passes 100.000 sold systems.
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