jan 1, 1830 - Wapello &
Wapello and Powesheik govern Sauk (4.5 mi sw) and Meskwaki (1.5 mi n) communities by CCCC in 1830's:
(It is unclear what exact year these chiefs first came to these villages, although it was certainly sometime after the Black Hawk War)
Powesheik’s main village was in what is now Johnson County. He lived in various villages throughout Southeast Iowa after the Black Hawk War, and though he did not live in Washington County, he does seem to have spent some time there. He was a well-liked chief among the Meskwaki people early on, but became increasingly unpopular as he signed treaty after treaty with the United States until he and his communities were left with no land in Iowa. Of course, those decisions were made with painful reluctance, and he even tried to return to Iowa in 1843 and 1844 but was driven back by the militia both times.
Wapello, on the other hand, died before his communities were removed from Iowa. But like Powesheik, he lived in a number of different villages throughout Iowa, spending only a few years in each place before having to move on. His original home was in Illinois, which he abandoned in order to avoid the Black Hawk War; his second home was 25 miles to the east, along the Iowa River, which was ceded to the United States in 1836; his third home was by Crooked Creek and the Skunk River; and his final home was 35 miles southwest of here, in a settlement overseen by White “Indian Agents” appointed by American authorities. He lived there with Chief Keokuk and Chief Appanoose until his death shortly before the Sauks’ final removal to reservations in the South. While he lived in Washington County, Wapello navigated relations with the American settlers all throughout the area. He lived next to Josiah Smart, with whom he became close friends. He also visited the home of the Ritchey family often, and according to local historian Charles Hotle, “it is said that Chief Wapello preferred the lands along Crooked creek and Skunk river to all other.”
Added to timeline:
Crooked Creek: A History of the Land and the People
Crooked Creek Christian Camp
Nicholas C. Yoder
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