March 32, 2023
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 5 days ago ⟶
List of edits
The community based era Reason: The possibility of behavioral change to inspire a movement away from institutionalized corrections. Example: Massachusetts drew national attention when it closed all its reform schools and replaced them with group homes.
The warehousing era Reason: protecting society and led to a rapid decline of decarceration initiative. Example: 70% of young adults paroled from prison in 22 states during 1978 were rearrested for serious crimes within 6 years of their release.
Just deserts era Reason: Overcrowding due to public and official frustration with rehabilitative efforts. Examples: Virginia abolished parole in 1995, increased sentences for certain violent crimes and announced they would build a dozen more prisons.
The evidence based era Reason: Need to employ cost-effective solutions to correctional issues. Example: Science based approach through things such as research and data.
The industrial era Reason: Concerns over security and discipline. Examples: In 1929, union influence led congress to pass the Hawes Cooper act which required prison made goods to conform to the regulations of the states through which they were shipped.
The punitive era Reason: Prisoners owed a debt to society that only a rigorous period of confinement could pay. Example: Federal penitentiary on Alcatraz island.
The treatment era Reason: New interest in reformation and corrections combined with new Behavioral techniques. Examples: therepuetic models and individual treatement.
The mass prison era Reason: prison populations were growing but solitary confinement became expensive Examples: Reintroduced corporal punishment into the handling of offenders.
The reformatory era Reason: Tension between Auburn and Pennsylvania system. Example: Maconochie developed a system of marks through which prisons could earn enough credits to buy their freedom.
The penitentiary era Reason: Opportunity for penace and saw prisons as places wherein offenders might make amends with society. Example: Eastern and western penitentiary opened with Solitary confinement.
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