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1521 Cortes conquers the Aztec empire in Mexico - This begins the conquistador stories of how much gold can be found in the world
1538 -Pizarro conquers the Incas in Peru -This allows for continued exploration of the Americas and encourages more invasions of the New World
Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas -Opening the exploration and exploitation of the Americas to Europeans
1586-1587 - Roanoke island colonies were established -First English colonies in the new world
1494 -Treaty of Tordesillas -Splits the Americas into land owned by the Spanish and land owned by the Portuguese
1550 Bartolome de Las Casas argued for the removal of the Encomenda system -This marked a anti-slavery sentiment rising in Spain
1607- Jamestown founded -First permanent English colony
1619- First African laborers arrive as indentured servants -Soon all African laborers arriving in the U.S will be slaves
1630- Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston - Increased Calvinist population of New England
1630- John Winthrop's City on a Hill speech - Established the ideal of Puritan exceptionalism and later American exceptionalism
1619- The house of Burgesses met for the first time - First functional legislative body in the English colonies
1620- Pilgrims found Plymouth - First colony founded for religious reasons -Had positive relations with the local Wampanoag tribe -Mayflower compact was signed one of the earliest colonial governance documents
1637- Anne Hutchinson was banned from the Boston colony. -Anne Hutchinson believed in antinomianism which means she thought you could commune with God by yourself which threatened to overturn the social order of Boston
1637- The Pequot war was fought -This war established the Puritans as the dominant power in the region scaring the Wampanoags
1636- Roger Williams founds the Rhode Island -The Rhode Island settlement was one of the foremost religious liberal colonies established
1609-1610 Starving Time in Jamestown -Due to a lack of food many in Jamestown died and some resorted to cannibalism. -John smith instituted a if you don't work you don't eat policy
1635- Roger Williams is banished from Boston -Roger Williams was a radical religious thinker because he maintained friendly relations with the northeastern Native Americans and thought the king had no right to give lnd charters
1675 - 1676 King Phillip's War - The Wampanoags felt marginalized by Puritans they increasingly felt threatened by the growing Puritan presence in the Northeast
1649- Maryland Toleration Act was passed -This act prevented religious persecution for Trinitarian Christians within Maryland
1662- The Halfway Covenant was formed -The Halfway Covenant was a form of partial church membership as people couldn't vote unless they had described a conversion event -Designed to retain the church's influence on New England
1681- Pennsylvania Charter is given to William Penn - William Penn had Quaker beliefs - Pennsylvania was established as a safe heaven for Quakers -Pennsylvania had religious freedom and some forms of democratic government
1624- Jamestown became a royal colony - Jamestown becoming a royal colony meant that the colony was profitable because of its farming of cash crops like tobacco. -It became a Royal colony in accordance to England's policy of mercantilism
1496- John Cabot finds North America -This event leads to the discovery of and later colonization of North America
1676- Bacon's Rebellion -An uprising by the former indentured servant class to try to get lower taxes and more military action against the Native Americans
1600- Tadoussac was founded -Tadoussac was a French fur trading outpost -The French were in the New World for beaver furs
1690s- Rice becomes central to North Carolina's economy - Slave trade expands as an result due to economic need for free labor
1689-Religious toleration act was passed - The effect of the act was that now there was greater religious diversity in the colonies -Puritan New England began having more varied types of Protestants congregate there.
1669- Laws came out saying slaves are in essence property of their owner - This eventuallly would lead to slave uprsings and revolts
1744- The great awakening - Religion has reached its old peaks of prominence because of sermons by Jonathan Edwards many question predetermination.
1770-Boston Massacre - A skirmish between colonists and the British in which several colonists were killed later used as a rallying point for the revolutionary war
1763-The Proclamation of 1763 restricted settlement past the Appalachian mountains was a reason for the Revolutionary war
1774- First Continental Congress -The continental congress showed that both the southern and northern colonies wanted better treatment from the british
1776- Declaration of Independence This event was the formal declaration of separation of the American colonies from the Crown
1783-The Treaty of Paris -Britain recognizes American Independence from Britain
1754- Albany Plan of Union An early plan to unite the 13 colonies into a colonial government.
1754-1763 French and Indian War A war between France and the English for the right to settle in the Ohio river valley
1774 - Quartering act The British required Colonists to provide room and board for British soldiers
1785 -Land Ordinance of 1785 Formalized a method where land in territories could be bought and sold
1775 - Olive branch Petition A last-ditch attempt by the colonies to avoid a revolution by asking the king for full representation at the second continental congress
1773-Boston Tea Party This act of throwing tea into the Boston harbor cost the British millions and was because the tea was cheaper than the smuggled tea
1774 -Quebec Act An Act that created a permanent government in Quebec that allowed the Catholic Church's presence
1776- Thomas Paine's Common sense published - Thomas Paine essentially changed how some colonists viewed themselves from mistreated British citizens to Americans , a separate nationality from the British
1787- The Tenth Federalist Paper James Madison argued for the passing of the constitution due to its abiltiy to negate the damage caused by opposing factions
1794 -The Battle of Fallen Timbers The last battle of the Northwest Indian War where American forced native American tribes to give up their land and the remaining British forces to clear out of the Ohio river valley
1787 - The Connecticut Compromise the compromise in the constitution that created two houses in congresses one, off population and the other had equal representation for each state.
1798-1800 XYZ Affair An almost entirely naval war between the republic of France and the United States of America based off whether The U.S.A owed this French Government any debts and the offense of how America in order to talk with France officials that they would have to bankrupt the American people.
1793-Citizen Genêt Affair A diplomatic affair that could have drawn the U.S.A into the french revolutionary wars
1793- The Proclamation of Neutrality A proclamation that the U.S.A wouldn't interfere in the French Revolutionary War
1777- The Battle of Saratoga -The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the Revolutionary War, because American forces beat the British and hurt Britsh strength in the northern colonies
1775 - The Battles of Lexington and Concord -These battles were the unofficial start of the American revolution
1781- the Battle of Yorktown - The last major battle of the British vs the Americans on American soil. The Americans won.
1763-1766 Pontiac's Rebellion -Pontiac's rebellion was a loosely organized multiple tribe rebellion against English settlement in the Ohio river valley
1787 -The Three-Fifths Compromise An agreement between Northen and Southern states to count slaves as 3/5ths of a person on the census
1786-1787 Daniel Shay's rebellion - A series of poor farmer revolts for better debt management that exposed the weakness of the Articles of the Confederation
1787- Northwest Ordinance - Only success of the confederation -Established a system where territories could become states
1790- The Constitution was ratified The establishment of a strong central powered government that gave states rights and protected natural human rights for all of its citizens
1776- The Articles of Confederation The first Government of America and was highly dysfunctional and had little power.
1775- Paul Revere Midnight Ride "The British are coming" announcing for colonists to hide their guns.
1774- Intolerable Acts -The shutting down of Boston's harbor and the dissolving of their legislature due to the Boston Tea Party.
1765- Stamp Act -The taxation of most pieces of paper by the British the colonists were highly offended
1767- Townshend Acts -Taxes on paints, glass, paper, tea, and lead imported into the colonies - Colonists were angry at the British
1765- Stamp Act Congress - A meeting between many of the colonies' representatives to determine a unified response to the Stamp Act
1663- The Navigation Acts A system of trade laws that sponsored mercantilism to enrich England
1793- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin This event restarted the South's cotton economy resulting in the increased need for slavery in the South
1801- John Marshall is appointed the Chief justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall oversaw a court that defined the ability of the supreme court to judicial review and increased the federal government power long after the Federalist party went extinct.
1814- The Hartford Convention The Hartford Convention was a meeting between Federalist delegates who discussed their grievances although rumors of talk about secession of the north from the Union led to the Hartford Convention being a negative stigma which killed the Federalist party.
1803- The purchase of the Louisiana territory from France This land purchase was extremely cheap per acre It doubled the land mass of The U.S.A Thomas Jefferson also used the elastic clause to be able to justify the purchase.
1812- The War of 1812 The war of 1812 was a war for a Native American homeland, The right not to be Americans for Canadiens, To make America a weak client state for Britain. For America, the war of 1812 was to improve their standing in the world and their neutral shipping rights to be respected.
1800- The capital of the U.S is established in Washington D.C This was in accordance to a deal passed to make a central bank in the United States
1814- Treaty of Ghent The treaty of Ghent formalized the end of the War of 1812
1810- The U.S annexes West Florida This gave the U.S greater land in the south and rich Floridian lands.
1819- Adams-onis treaty Spain ceded Florida to the U.S due to pressure from Jackson's invasion of Florida.
1824- John Quincy Adams becomes president The election of John Quincy Adams was highly controversial and effectively ended the era of Good Feelings.
1820 Missouri compromise -A compromise that prevented the civil war for 40 years. The Missouri compromise declared that Maine and Missouri would enter the union and that future states north of the 36° 30' parallel would be free states.
1790- First textile mill in America This is indicative of the first of many factories in the united states radically changing local life and promoting the formation of cities.
1810- Macon bill No.2 Trade reopened with Britain and France. This helped the U.S economy.
1803- Marbury v Madison This case established the Supreme Court's ability to Judicial Review and the ability to declare laws unconstitutional.
1804- Lewis and Clark expedition This expedition informed the American people of what resources were in Louisana territory.
1814 - The Star-Spangled Banner was written This poem would serve as a source of nationalism and unity for Americans for generations to come.
1814- Washington D.C burnt by the British -This was an embarrassment for Madison's Administration and helped to end the war of 1812.
1809-Tecumseh establishes tribal confederacy Tecumseh attempted to establish a native American homeworld .
1838- Trail of Tears Thousands of Cherokee died on the way to western land because they were forced out of their land by deals with the Americans.
1828 - Andrew Jackson elected president This marks the beginning of the formation of the Democratic party.
1823- The Monroe Doctrine -The Monroe document warned European powers, not to interfere with the development of newly sovereign nations in America, Strengthing U.S.A's power in the western hemisphere.
December 1807- Embargo Act -American ships weren't allowed to trade with Europe. This cost America millions of dollars.
January 1809- Customs Act -Forbade the unloading of a ship's cargo without the permission of a customs official. It hurt the U.S.A more than France or Britian.
March 1809- Non-Intercourse Act - Repealed the Embargo Act and reauthorized trade with all countries except U.K and France
1821- The Erie canal first used - The Erie canal helped facilitated inland travel and assisted in making NYC a financial powerhouse in the region.
1800- Start of the market revolution - The market revolution established a capitalist economic system in America as opposed to a economic sytem based off bartering.
1814- The Creek wars The Creek wars resulted in native Americans losing a lot of land to the Americans.
1818- The first Seminole war -Andrew Jackson's invasion of Florida and occupation of Spanish territories.
1819- Tallmadge amendment proposed -This amendment proposed essentially the end of slavery and nearly started a civil war.
1832- Nullification crisis in South Carolina -The first time a state went close to seceding from the union.
1828 - Tariff of abominations - The tariff of abomination increased prices for foreign goods and increased southern sectionalism
1834- Destruction of the Central Bank of America -This reduced the ability of the central government to regulate finance.
1818- Treaty of 1818 - The treaty of 1818 formed the northern border of America along the 49th northern parallel and began a long period of peace between britian and America
1850-Compromise of 1850 -the compromise of 1850 was a series of agreements that admitted California as a free state and postponed the civil war from occuring
-1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford -This supreme court case sided that Dred Scott wasn't an American citizen and all slaves weren't American citizens. This case supported the south and was intended to be an upholding of the existence of slavery
1825-Hudson River School -The Hudson River School was the first American art movement and was related to the transcenedatalist movement
1854- Republican party founded - The first mainstream unification of anti-slavery sentiments into a political party
1846- Mexican American war -The Mexican American war was the war that defined the U.S-Mexico boundary and Mexico lost a third of thier land to the U.S
1860-Abram Lincoln wins the election of 1860 -This event was the immediate trigger for the American Civil War with multiple southern states seceding rapidly after the election.
1848-1849 - The California Gold Rush -The California Gold Rush was instrumental in giving California enough people to qualify for statehood thereby causing the compromise of 1850 to be needed and eventually causing the Civil War.
1850- The Know-Nothing party was formed -The know-nothing party created a strong strain of xenophobia in America
1848-Seneca Falls Convention -The Seneca Falls Convention was a convention for women suffrage and marked the beginning of the Women's suffrage movement.
1844- Increase in Irish immigration - There was an increase in Irish immigration due to the Irish potato famine this sparked xenophobic ideas in America
1846- Thoreau gets arrested - Thoreau got arrested and wrote the essay "Civil Disobedience" which later became the basis for nonviolent resistance movements around the world.
1854-The Kansas-Nebraska Acts - The Kansas-Nebraska Acts repealed the Missouri Compromise and thereby facilitated the events of Bleeding Kansas where popular sovereignty would determine whether if a new state would be a slave or free state.
1854-1861- Bleeding Kansas -Bleeding Kansas was a series of conflicts between abolitionists and pro-slavery advocates. Bleeding Kansas deepened the divide between the north and the south.
1859- John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry -John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry increased sectionalism between the North and the South.
1852- Uncle Tom's Cabin is published - Uncle Tom's Cabin humanized slaves to Americans and helped reveal how horrible the institution slavery is and also helped cause the Civil war.
1851-Maine passes Maine liquor law -The passing of this law indicated how successful the Temperance movement was in producing change.
1845- The term "Manifest Destiny " was coined -The term Manifest Destiny was symbolic of how America was embracing a new idea that It was their God given duty to expand west.
1845- Texas was annexed - The annexation of Texas triggered tensions between the Mexico and America that helped cause the mexicn american war
1836- The first collection of transcendentalist into a transcendentalist club -The ideals of transcendentalism were spread as an early american phiolspoical movemt
1850- The Fugitive Slave Act passed Congress -This act meant that slaves had to leave the U.S for their freedom t be obtained.
1887- Dawes act - The Dawes act essentially broke up reserved land for native Americans and ensured that native Americans would get land but this land was mostly desert.The Dawes act also assisted in ending native American hope for sovereignty.
1890-Sherman anti-trust act -The Sherman anti-trust act was the beginning of the end for monopolies. The Sherman anti-trust act was used to break up monopolies and eventually restore competition to the economic system of America.
1892- First immigration station on Ellis Island opens. - The opening of Ellis Island's immigration centers is symbolic of the uptick in immigration, America experiences during this time period.
1893- Turner's thesis -Turner's thesis established the view of the frontier and the west for most people. It also stated the idea that the west was closed for settlement. It also espoused the values of rugged individualism.
1876- The battle of the Little Bighorn - The battle of Little Bighorn was one of the last great victories the native Americans won against union forces.
1890-Wounded Knee Massacre -300 Native Americans were massacred as they were trying to escape. This battle signaled the militarily for the chances for native American sovereignty.
1891- The Populist Party was formed - The populist party was formed and was designed to help farmers and supported traditional Christian beliefs, a weak silver dollar and strict goverment regulation of railroads.
1877- Munn v. Illinois Munn v. Illinois was a supreme court case that set a legal precedent for the regulation of railroads and grain elevators.
1887-Interstate commerce commission created -The interstate commerce commission assisted in creating a governmental body to endure fair railroad rates.
1871- The peak of the Tweed ring Boss Tweed a politician in new york best exemplified how politicians used grafts and how corruption was highly present around the gilded age
1893- The Panic of 1893 -The Panic of 1893 was an economic crisis where unemployment rose dramatically and many citizens became destitute and impovrished.
1905-the Industrial Workers of the World organization was founded -The founding of the organization is significant as it represents a unified multi-front worker union that actually does assist in changing public opinon
1898-Spanish-American War - The Spanish-American War was important as it marked the beginning of American imperialism - It also showed the effects of yellow journalism in the American public - Marked the death of Spain's imperialism -Marked a change from the usual isolationist policy of the U.S
1898- Delôme letter - The Delôme letter was written by the Spanish ambassador to Spain and it criticized Mckinely -This enraged the public and was a contributing factor to the Spanish American war.
1917- America joins in on World War 1 - America Joining in on world war 1 increases americas stature in the world.
1907- The Great White Fleet begins its world tour -The Great White Fleet increased America's influence and power worldwide an example of big stick diplomacy.
1901- Roosevelt becomes president - Roosevelt becoming president was important as Roosevelt supported progressive reforms and created Big Stick diplomacy.
1901- Big Stick Diplomacy - Big stick diplomacy represented a new way of American diplomacy in response to America's desire to interact more with the international community.
1920- Treaty of Versailles - The treaty that ended world war 1 and Woodrow Wilson assisted in creating the treaty .
1920- League of Nations - A precursor to the Modern U.N - America refused to soin for fears of losing sovereignty
1913- Woodrow Wilson creates moral diplomacy -Moral diplomacy was important as it was an extension of white man's burden and led to america helping friendly democracy while punishing unfriendly non-democratic governments.
1928- Banna Massacre - The banana massacre was caused by United Fruit company and it showed how some South American countries had become banana republics. Thousands of workers were killed in Columba after they went on strike.
1913-Underwood-Simmons act - The Underwood Simmons act was an implementation of Wilson's attack on the triple wall of privilege: the banks, the trusts, and tariffs
1917- Zimmerman Telgram -The Zimmerman telegram was a leaked telegram between Mexico and Germany in which Germany asked for Mexico's help in exchange for the lands it lost in the Mexican American war. It assisted in causing america to enter world war one.
1919- Schenck v. the United States -Schenck v. the United States was a court case concerning the espionage act of 1917 and the limits of free speech. The supreme court ruled that free speech applied unless there was a clear and present danger in what was being said.
1920- The Palmer Raids - The Palmer Raids were a series of government raids on socialist and communist organizations in Amerca. It was the First "Red Scare" America had.
1925-KKK March on Washington -The KKK marched on Washington symbolizing how america's nativist and zenophobic sentiments
1925- Scopes Monkey trial -The Scopes monkey trial was a trial showing the tension between teaching evolution in school vs the idea of creationism. The supreme court ruled in favor the Tennessee school board law that made it illegal to teach evolution in school.
1929- The crash of 1929 -Th stock market crashed due to an overproduction of goods and consumers being unable to pay for these goods this led to the great depression.
1924 - Louis Armstrong became a featured soloist - Jazz was an example of how a Harlem Renaissance movement had changed the perception of African Americans in many people's eyes.
1914- Ford begins to pay his workers a living wage - This increase in wages allowed for his workers to purchase the goods they produced eventually leading to a economic improvement resulting in the economy of the roaring twenties
1932- FDR's first New Deal -FDR's New Deal was a federally funded program designed to end the great depression. It put workers back to work on public works helped farmers and promote trust in the American financial system.
1904 - The Roosevelt Corollary - The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe doctrine justified American intervention in any country in the western hemisphere in order to preserve that countries freedom and independence.
1898- The Philippines American war - The Philippines American war was a symbol of how America wanted to exercise imperialism and expand its own empire.
Era of Good feelings
The Gilded Age laissez-faire government, exploitation and the end of native American sovereignty
1909-1913- Dollar diplomacy - A foreign diplomacy strategy that involved working with countries to improve their and America's economies when they were each other's allies however if the economic method didn't work than America simply tried to convince the nation via intimidation utilizing Americas massive army.
"The Roaring Twenties" The Roaring Twenties were roaring due to a strong economy, new technology and a new culture emerging among the youth of America.
The great depression- A period of extreme poverty and high unemployment rates for most of the country.
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