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American history x
Sejr Bundesen Sommerlund
8 months ago
Paleo-americans cross the frozen Bering land bridge from Asia
They travel south between the laurentide & Cordilleran ice sheets, following herds of large herbivores
The Clovis culture develops stone tools to hunt Mammoths, Bisons & Camelops
Hiawatha & the Great peacemaker found the Iroquois Confederacy
Christopher Columbus reaches the new world
Ponce de León arrives in Florida. Spanish settlements come up in Florida & New Mexico
The French traders establish outposts along the Mississippi river
The English establish the Roacnoke colony in virginia
Three years later the colony is mysteriously deserted
The Virginia colony is established at Jamestown
John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, the daughter of the Powhatan chief and starts the plantation of Tobacco
The first African slaves are brought to work the Tobacco plantations
The pilgrims, a religious group escaping persecution in England arrive on the Mayflower and set up the Plymouth colony
Half the pilgrims die in the first winter, The survivors are helped by the native Americans
16.000puritans (strict protestants) settle in massachussets bay colony.
Harvard university is esstablished
New Netherlands (new York & New Jersey) is seized from the dutch
Georgia, the last of the 13 British colonies, is established
The colonial population is 2 million, compared to Britain's 6 million
Altough subject to British taxes, the colonists have no representation in parliament
Violent anti-tax protests lead to the Boston Masscre
Protestors throw an entire shipment of tea (worth $2 million today) into Boston harbor
Patriot militia stand up to the British troops sent to disarm them at Lexington & Concord
Representatives of the 13 colonies sign the Declaration of Independence
The continental army is raised under the command of George Washington
The Americans win a decisive victory at Saratoga. This convinces France to join the war on the American side.
The British surrender to American & French fores after the seige of Yorktown
Britian recognizes the independence of the 13 colonies at the treaty of Paris. The United States becomes the first country to gain independence from an European power.
A new constitution is drawn up by Thomas Jefferson George Washington becomes the first president in 1789
The Republic of Texas once part of Mexico, is annexed by the United States
The Oregon treaty with Britain gives American pioneers access to the Pacific northwest
California & the Southwest are won in the Mexican American war. Settlers rush west after the gold is discovered
The American South produces 3/4th of the world's cotton. South's plantation-based economy is heavily dependent on slavery
Abraham Lincoln is elected president. He is against the expansion of slavery
11 southern states break away & form the Confederate States of America
The Confederate army attacks Fort Sumter starting the American Civil War. They defeat the union army again at Bull Run.
The Unionists wins the battles of Shiloh and Antietam with heavy casualties on both sides.
Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in the south to be free.
The Union army halts the Confederate invasion of the North at Gettysburg.
The Union army leads a devastating 'March to the sea' in Georgia cutting the confederacy in half.
After 4 years of bitter fighting & 635.000 lives lost, the Civil War is over. Lincoln is assassinated the previous month.
The 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the United States
After a period of reconstruction, Jim Crow Laws are passed in the southern enforcing segregation & vigilante violence against Blacks
Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million
The first Transcontinental Railroad is built reducing coast to coast travel time from 6 months to 6 days
Cowboy drive 5 milion wild cattle from Texas to the railhead in Kansas
Westward migration transforms the great plains into the breadbasket of America
The settlers hunt the American Bison to near extinction
The results is conflict with the plains Indians whose way of life depends on the animal
An alliance of indian tribes defeats the US army at the battle of little Bighorn. They win the battle but lose the war and also their lands
Thomas Edison invents the filament Light Bulb and build powerplants to supply homes & industries with electricity
4 standard time zones are introduced for uniform train schedules
The Statue of Liberty is presented to the United States as a gift by the people of France
Over the next 20 years, Lady liberty will welcome more than 12 million immigrants to a rapidly industrializing America Italians, Irish & Poles move into cities while Germans & Scandinavians spread out to farmlands
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie pioneers the mass production of steel
The Republic of Hawaii is annexed. Puerto Rico & Guam are acquired in the Spanish American war
Steel fuels the rise of the skyscraper and the modern American city
Massive Oil deposits are discovered in Texas, making America the world’s largest oil producer
The Wright brothers make the first controlled heavier that air flight at Kitty hawk, NC
Henry ford launches the Model T, the world’s first mass produced affordable car
Los Angeles, the fastest growing city in America, accounts for 80% of the world’s film industry
1.6 million African Americans migrate from south to cities in the north. The first ghettos come up.
American expeditionary forces help the allies (Britain & France) defeat the German empire in World War 1
After decades of struggle, American women finally the right to vote
The US Stock Market collapses in the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The great Depression begins.
Unemployment reaches 25% and the GDP shrink by 15% Fierce winds in the great plains destroy farmland during the Dust Bowl Rural families migrate west in search of work
President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduces ‘New Deal’ policies to deal with the Depression The New Deal has limited success. it is going to take something bigger to pull America of the depression. Massive public works such as the Hoover dam are undertaken. Social Security provides old age pensions & unemployment benefits
As war breaks out in Europe, 2 million workers are hired to produce arms & supplies for the Allies December 7, 1941- The empire of Japan launches a surprise attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor killing 2,400 Americans
The US joins the Allies against the Axis powers, The US Navy inflicts irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet at the battle of Midway
The US leads the Allied invasion of Normandy (D-day) to liberate France
After Japan refuses to surrender, the US drops atomic bombs destroying the cities of Hiroshima & Nagaski Although more than 400,000 American lost their lives in the war, American emerges more powerful than ever. The US is founding member of the United Nations and a permanent member of the Security Council
The suburban housing explosion & Interstate highways change the American landscape Post War America is a superpower with a turbocharged economy The US is locked in a struggle for global dominance with another superpower - the Soviet Union Both sides support rival sides in communist vs non-communist struggle around the world. And both build huge stockpiles of nuclear weopons
Meriwether Lewis & William Clark are assigned to map the new territory. With the help of Sacagawea they reach the pacific ocean in 1805.
Frontiersmen & tappers roam the unorganized territory acquiring animal furs for trade.
Steamboats begin plying on the Mississippi river
Florida is acquired from Spain. The US fights 3 wars with the native Semincles
The Erie canal links the great lakes to New York City & the Atlantic ocean
The Mississippian culture develops agriculture and cities based around huge ceremonial mounds
The Anasazi people build great cliff dwelling called Pueblos
Lousiana territory is purchased from France for $15 mil, doubling the country's size
Native Americans are forcibly relocated to reservations by the Indian removal acts. Thousands die on the 'trail of tears'
Industry & Immigration
Sale and consumption of Alcohol is banned during the Prohibition. Organized criminal gangs come up in urban America
65 million babies are born in the fifteen years following the war
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