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Succession of Kings
Athena Stowers Cole
historical visual of what occurred in the world in the past.
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Athena Stowers Cole
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Pedigree Chart #3 Cartwright
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pedigree chart #1 Cartwright
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pedigree chart #2 cartwright
Offa defeats the Welsh
Egbert, son of Eahmund of Kent flees to Wessex and then to exile in the Frankish court of Charlemagne
1st recorded Viking raids on England
Offa annexes East Anglia and joins it to the kingdom of Mercia -Vikings raid the Christian monastery on Lindisfarne
St Albans Abbey
Vikings raid the monastery on Iona in Scotland
Around this time the Book of Kells is written in Ireland
Egbert returns from exile in Charlemagne and becomes King of Wessex
Wessex becomes dominant kingdom
Vikings raid Kent and East Anglia, establish a settlement at Dublin
Egbert subdues North Wales. He is recognized as overlord of other English kings
King Edmund II Ironside of England
King Harold II of England
Regents of England: Hubert de Burgh & William the Marshal
Regents of England: John of Gaunt & Thomas of Gloucester
Regent of England: John, Duke of Bedford
Edward V of England
Edward VIII of England
Duncan II of Scotland
Regent of Scotland: Earl of Livingston
James IV marries Margaret Tudor
Louis (Luis) of Spain
Ferdinand VII (Fernando) of Spain
John I of France
Napoleon II of France
Louis XIX of France
Joh Paul I
Kenneth MacAlpine, King of Scots, conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland
Vikings forces enter Thames estuary and march on Canterbury
Vikings are defeated by Saxons at the River Parrett
Aethelwulf dies at Steyning in Sussex
Vikings land in Iceland -Aehelbald dies -Winchester sacked by the Danes
The Viking 'Great Heathen Army' commanded by Halfdan and Ivar the Boneless lands in East Anglia and sweeps across England
Vikings take York (Jorvik)
Aethelred defeated by the Danes (Vikings) at Reading
Aethelred and his brother Alfred defeat the Danes at Ashdown -Battle of Meretun, Hampshire, Aethelred is mortally wounded and dies.
London falls to Viking raiders
Guthrum's Danish army invades Wessex -Alfred defeats Guthrum at the battle of Ethandune (Edington) in Wiltshire. -TREATY OF WEDMORE divides England into two.
Alfred defeats the Danes at Rochester
Alfred imposes rules on South Wales
Alfred takes London from the Danes. -Danelaw - the territory occupied by the Danes in East Anglia is recognised by Alfred
Alfred establishes a permanent army and navy
Anglo Saxon Chronicle, source of much early British History, begun
King Alfred dies
Eric, ruler of the Danes in East Anglia, dies in the Battle of Holme
Reconquest of Danelaw lands begins. The last great Viking army sent to ravage England is defeated, by an army of Wessex and Mercia.
Edward the Elder recaptures Essex from the Danes
Edward's sister Aethelflaed of Mercia attacks and conquers most of Wales
Edward takes East Anglia from the Danes
King Constantine II submits to Edward
Edward dies at Farndon-on-Dee near Chester leading an army against the Welsh
Athelstan annexes Northumbria, and forces the kings of Wales, Strathclyde, the Picts, and the Scots to submit to him -Athelstan marries his sister to Sihtric the Viking King of York to cement his ties with the North
Athelstan invades Scotland
Battle of Brunanburh: Athelstan defeats alliance of Scots, Celts, Danes, and Vikings, and takes the title of King of all Britain
Scandinavian forces from Northumbria overrun the East Midlands
Edmund re-establishes control over Northumbria and rules a united England
Edmund extends his rule into southern Scotland
Edmund conquers Strathclyde -Cumbria is annexed by the Scots
Edmund murdered at a party in Pucklechurch
Expulsion of Eric Bloodaxe, last Danish king of York
Mercians and Northumbrians rebel against Edwy
Northern Kings submit to Edgar at Chester
Edward the Martyr murdered at Corfe Castle
Danes renew their raids on England
Battle of Maldon: Byrhtnoth of Essex is defeated by Danish invaders; Aethelred buys off the Danes with 10,000 pounds of silver (Danegeld)
Danes under Sweyn and Norwegians under Olaf Trygvesson sail up river Thames and besiege London; bought off by Aethelred
Aethelred orders a massacre of Danish settlers
The Danes raid Kent, and burn Canterbury Cathedral
King Canute II of Denmark & Norway again invades England
Battle of Abingdon: King Canute II of Denmark defeats Edmund. They meet on the Isle of Alney and agree to divide the kingdom into two. Canute takes the land North of the Thames and Edmund the South. -Edmund is assassinated a few months later and Canute takes the throne as King Canute of England.
Canute divides England into four earldoms: Northumbria, Wessex, Mercia, and East Anglia
Welsh led by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn attack England and burn Hereford Cathedral
Harold Godwinson (later Harold II) and his brother Tostig of Northumberland attack Wales. -Gruffydd ap Llewellyn is killed by his own troops
Ealhmund of Kent
Heaberht of Kent
Oswine of Kent
Eadric of Kent
Æthelhere of E. Anglia
Beornred of Mercia
Peada of Mercia
Offa of Essex
Sigeberht of Wessex
Cenfus of Wessex
St Agapetus I
St Adeodatus I
St Eugene I
St Leo II
St Benedict II
Louis II of France
St Adrian III
Aedh of Scotland
Robert I of France
Louis V of France
Lulach of Scotland
Louis X of France
Richard III of England
Francis II of France
Louis VIII of France
Napoleon I Bonaparte of France
The first Saxon revolt against native Britons; led by two brothers, Hengst and Horsa.
Attila the Hun faces the Visigoths & Romans together in the battle of Chalons. Attila is defeated in this battle, and forced to withdraw. He goes on to invade Italy but is convinced to withdraw by Pope Leo
Saxons crush Britons at the battle of Aylesford in Kent -Vandals Sack Rome
Western Roman Empire ends
Roman occupation of Gaul ends
Arthur's victory over Saxons at Mound Badon in Dorset, England. This slows the Saxon conquest of England.
Battle at Deorham in England
Pope Gregory I Obtains 30 Year Truce
Muhammad begins dictation of the Koran.
Sigeberht founds monastery at Bedericesworth.
Mercians defeat the Northumbrians in early battles.
Muslims begin conquest of Syria and Persia.
Muslims capture Jerusalem.
Muslims begin conquest of Egypt
Byzantine forces recapture Alexandria from the Arabs
Arabs recapture Alexandria.
Oswy of Northumbria defeats and kills Penda of Mercia.
Arabs begin siege of Constantinople, which continues until 678.
Arabs terminate their siege of Constantinople without success.
Pope Gregory II excommunicates Emperor Leo III.
Bede completes his history of the Church in England, The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. It is the first history written of the English people as a whole.
Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor of the West.
670's Greek Fire invented in Constantinople
Harold II is killed at the Battle of Hastings
William invades Scotland
Work begins on the Tower of London
William begins the construction of a Norman Cathedral at Winchester.
William orders a survey of the shires of England; the information is recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday survey of England completed
William II defeats an invasion of England led by Malcolm III of Scotland.
Malcolm III and the Scots invade England again, but are defeated and Malcolm is killed at the Battle of Alnwick.
FIRST CRUSADE to free the Holy Land from Muslims begins following a call by Pope Urban II
The Crusaders take Jerusalem. The first Crusade ends.
Civil war known as 'The Anarchy' begins in England when the Earl of Norfolk leads a rebellion against Stephen of England
Matilda leaves England.
David I of Scotland invades England, but is defeated at Northallerton
Matilda leaves France and lands in England.
Matilda, Henry's only surviving legitimate child, marries Geoffrey, Count of Anjou.
Stephen usurps the throne from Matilda, Henry’s daughter.
Matilda takes Stephen prisoner at the Battle of Lincoln, and Matilda is proclaimed queen.
Stephen defeats Matilda at the Battle of Faringdon.
Henry Plantagenet lands in England -Henry and Stephen agree terms for ending the civil war. Under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster, Stephen is to remain King for life, but thereafter the throne passes to Henry.
Pope Adrian IV issues the papal bull Laudabiliter, giving Henry II dispensation to invade Ireland and bring the Irish Church under the control of the Church of Rome.
The Assize of Clarendon establishes trial by jury for the first time. -The beginning the English settlement of Ireland when Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster, asks Henry II to help him oppose other Irish kings
English scholars expelled from Paris found a university in Oxford.
Henry invades Ireland, receives homage from Ireland's kings, and is accepted as Lord of Ireland.
Henry creates a framework of justice creating judges and dividing England into six counties
Lincoln cathedral is destroyed by an earthquake.
Richard sets out with Philip of France on the Third Crusade to the Holy Land
The Assize of Measures standardizes weights and distance including the lb (pound) and the yard.
England loses most of its possessions in France.
Pope Innocent III issues an Interdict against England, banning all church services except baptisms and funerals
Pope Innocent III excommunicates John -Cambridge University founded
Innocent III declares that John is no longer the rightful King
Philip Augustus of France defeats the English at the Battle of Bouvines
Beginning of the Barons' war -John seals the MAGNA CARTA -The Pope decrees that John need not adhere to the Magna Carta, and civil war breaks out
Prince Louis of France lands in England and captures the Tower of London -John flees North
The end of the First Barons War -The French lose the battles of Lincoln and Dover and are driven back to France
Building of Salisbury cathedral begun
The Treaty of York agrees the border between England and Scotland
Henry's Great Council is called 'Parliament' for the first time
Henry begins rebuilding Westminster Abbey
Henry signs the Provisions of Oxford, which limit royal power
Henry repudiates the Provisions of Oxford
The second Baron’s War breaks out
The Dictum of Kenilworth restores Henry's authority and annuls the Provisions of Oxford
Independence of the Welsh is ended by the Statute of Rhuddlan
Edward invades Scotland, defeats the Scots at Dunbar and deposes John Balliol
Scots rise against English rule and, led by William Wallace, defeat Edward at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
Edward invades Scotland again and defeats William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk
William Wallace is executed in London
Edward attempts to invade Scotland again, but dies on his way north
Parliament sets up a committee of Lords Ordainers to control the King and improve administration
Edward is defeated at the Battle of Bannockburn by Robert Bruce. Scottish independence is assured
The Scots assert their independence by signing the DECLARATION OF ARBROATH
Parliament is divided into two houses, Lords and Commons. -English becomes the court language replacing Norman French
Defeat of Scottish army at Halidon Hill.
Philip VI annexes Edward III's Duchy of Aquitaine. Edward III responds by laying claim to the French crown as a grandson of Philip IV though his mother Isabella. This results in the 100 Years’ War with France
The Children's Crusade
Edward besieges and captures Calais
Edward, The Black Prince, sacks Limoges massacring 3,000 people
John Wycliffe begins to translate the New Testament from Latin into English
Winchester College founded
Death of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer leaving The Canterbury Tales unfinished.
Battle of Agincourt
Joan of Arc begins her campaign to expel the English from France. She inspires the French army which relieves Orleans besieged by English troops.
The English capture Joan of Arc. She is burned at the stake as a witch and heretic in Rouen on 30 May
Eton college founded
Henry marries Margaret of Anjou
Henry VI is captured by Yorkists and his wife, Margaret, escapes to Scotland. -Margaret raises a Lancastrian army in the north defeats and kills Richard of York at Wakefield
Queen Margaret marches South, defeats Earl of Warwick at St Albans, and frees Henry. -Edward, son of Richard of York, defeats Margaret's Lancastrian forces on 29 March at the Battle of Towton. -Margaret and Henry flee to Scotland. -Henry is deposed by Edward who declares himself King Edward IV
Henry VI is captured and brought to the Tower of London.
Edward IV makes peace with Margaret, returns to England with an army, Edward flees to Flanders. Henry VI is restored to the throne
Edward returns to England -Margaret is defeated at the Battle of Tewkesbury; her son Edward, Prince of Wales, is killed in battle. -Henry is stabbed to death in the Tower of London.
Edward grants privileges to the Hanseatic League of North German trading cities to conduct trade in England.
William Caxton sets up a printing press in Westminster, London
Edward is declared illegitimate and deposed in favour of his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester. -Edward and his brother Richard of York are imprisoned in the Tower of London. After a few months they are never seen again -The Duke of Buckingham is appointed Constable and Great Chamberlain of England -Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham is captured, tried, and put to death for a rebellion.
A Papal Bull is issued against witchcraft. -Parliamentary statutes are written down in English for the first time and printed.
Richard is defeated and killed by Henry Tudor’s army at Bosworth Field.
Richard III of England's body is rediscovered beneath a car park 527 years after his burial in Greyfriars Church (1485)
the remains of Richard III of England, are reinterred at Leicester Cathedral
Henry invades France but at the Treaty of Etaples agrees to withdraw
Christopher Columbus crosses the Atlantic and lands in San Salvador, Cuba and Haiti
John Cabot sails west from Bristol on the Matthew and discovers New-found-land. He believed it was Asia and claimed it for England.
Catherine of Aragon, daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, marries Prince Arthur, Henry’s eldest son.
Prince Arthur dies, and Prince Henry (the future Henry VIII) becomes heir to the throne, later marrying Arthur’s widow, Catherine of Aragon
The English defeat the Scots at the Battle of Flodden Field. James IV of Scotland is killed.
Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, becomes Chancellor and Cardinal.
Catherine gives birth to Princess Mary (later Mary I).
Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses against the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church.
Hampton Court Palace is completed. -William Tyndale publishes The New Testament in English.
Henry seeks permission from the Pope to divorce Catherine of Aragon but is refused.
Cardinal Wolsey is accused of high treason for failing in Henry's divorce pursuit, but dies before he can be brought to trial. -Sir Thomas More becomes Chancellor. -Henry starts to cut ties with the Church of Rome.
Sir Thomas More resigns from Chancellorship
Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and annuls Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon. -Henry marries Anne Boleyn. -Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I) is born. -Pope Clement VII excommunicates Henry
The Act of Supremacy is passed
Sir Thomas More is executed for refusing to recognize Henry as Head of the Church of England. -Thomas Cromwell is made Vicar-General -First complete English translation of the Bible by Miles Coverdale
Anne Boleyn is executed and Henry marries Jane Seymour -The Act of Union between Wales and England.
Jane Seymour dies giving birth to Edward (later Edward VI).
Henry marries Anne of Cleves in January but the marriage is annulled in July -Execution of Thomas Cromwell on a charge of treason. -Henry marries Catherine Howard.
Beginning of the Reformation in Scotland under John Knox.
Catherine Howard is executed for treason.
Henry marries Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife. -Treaty of Greenwich proposes marriage between Henry's son Edward and Mary Queen of Scots. However it is rejected by the Scots who want an alliance with France.
The English army defeats the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh in an attempt to force a marriage between Edward VI and Mary Queen of Scots.
The French send over 6,000 troops to prevent the English from gaining control of the Scottish Borders.
The First Act of Uniformity is passed -The First Book of Common Prayer is introduced
The Duke of Somerset is deposed and is replaced by John Dudley,
Archbishop Cranmer publishes the Second book of Common Prayer.
The Duke of Northumberland persuades Edward to nominate Lady Jane Grey as heir to the throne of England -Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen. After nine days, Mary arrives in London, Lady Jane Grey is arrested, and Mary is crowned Queen.
Sir Thomas Wyatt, Lady Jane Grey, and her husband are executed. -Mary's half-sister, Princess Elizabeth, is sent to the Tower of London on suspicion of involvement in Wyatt's rebellion -Parliament meets to re-establish Catholicism in England -The persecution of Protestants begins, the heresy laws are revived, and England is reconciled to Papal authority.
Protestant bishops are burned at the stake for heresy. -Princess Elizabeth is released from the Tower of London
Philip II persuades Mary to declare war on France as an ally of Spain.
Calais, the last English possession in France, is captured by the French.
Mary Queen of Scots declares herself Queen of France, Scotland and England when her husband Francis becomes King of France. He dies a year later and Mary returns to Scotland. -Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity restore the Protestant Church in England and make Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church of England. -The Revised Prayer Book of Elizabeth I is issued
Hawkins and Drake make first slave-trading voyage to America. -Elizabeth gives aid to Protestant Huguenots in the French Wars of Religion.
Peace made between England and France at Troyes.
Mary Queen of Scots, flees to England from Scotland and is imprisoned by Elizabeth.
Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth from the Catholic Church.
Francis Drake sails around the world on the Golden Hind.
Sir Walter Raleigh founds the first American colony and names it Virginia
William Shakespeare leaves Stratford for London to become an aspiring playwright
Babington Catholic plot to assassinate Elizabeth I -Mary Queen of Scots, is implicated in the Babington plot and is sent to trial.
Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed at Fotheringhay Castle on charges of treason. -Drake attacks and defeats the Spanish fleet in Cadiz.
A Spanish Armada of 130 ships sailing against England is defeated by Admiral Drake and John Hawkins using fireships. English dominance of the sea leaves the way open for English trade and colonization of America and India. -Earl of Essex leads an expedition to Ireland.
John Harrington invents the first flushing water closet
Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
15,000 Londoners die of the Plague
Sir Walter Raleigh makes his first expedition to the South American continent.
The Globe Theatre is opened in London.
East India Company founded
Poor Law is passed introducing a poor relief rate on property owners. -First performance of Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
The Somerset House Peace Conference results in peace between England and Spain.
Guy Fawkes and other Catholic dissidents attempt to blow up King and Parliament in The Gunpowder Plot. They are betrayed and arrested.
Jamestown found in America by the Virginia company
The King James Authorized Version of the Bible is published.
Heretics are burned at the stake for the last time in England.
Scottish mathematician John Napier publishes his theory of logarithms simplifying calculations for navigators.
The Pilgrim Fathers set sail for America in the Mayflower. They land at Cape Cod and found New Plymouth.
The Petition of Right a declaration of the “rights and liberties of the subject" is presented to the King, who agrees to it under protest. -Physician William Harvey demonstrates the circulation of blood in the body
Charles dissolves Parliament and rules by himself until 1640.
The colony of Massachusetts is founded in America
Work begins on Buckingham Palace in London
the National Covenant is signed after Charles I tries to force new prayer book on Scots.
Act of Toleration in England established religious toleration
Outbreak of Civil War.
Charles surrenders to the Scots -King conspires with Scots to invade England on his behalf.
Charles escapes to the Isle of Wight but is captured.
Charles I is executed.
England seizes the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam, changing its name to New York.
The Great Plague strikes London and over 60,000 die.
The Great Fire of London
Hudson Bay Company founded in North America
Habeas Corpus act passed which forbids imprisonment without trial
Pennsylvania founded in America by William Penn
Edict of Nantes allowing freedom of religion to Huguenot Protestants is revoked in France
Edmund Halley draws the first meteorological map showing weather systems
Isaac Newton publishes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
King James II issues the Declaration of Indulgence suspending all laws against Catholics and Non-Conformists -The 'Glorious Revolution'. William of Orange lands at Torbay with an army of 20,000
Bill of Rights is passed by Parliament -Jacobite Highlanders rise in support of James and are victorious at Killiekrankie but are defeated a few months later at Dunkeld.
Scottish Jacobites defeated at Haughs of Cromdale
William offers the Scottish Highlanders a pardon for the Jacobite uprising if they sign allegiance him
Glencoe Massacre. MacDonalds are killed by Campbells for not signing the oath of allegiance
Bank of England founded by William Paterson
First Civil List Act passed
William forms grand alliance between England, Holland, and Austria to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns.
England declares war on France in the War of the Spanish Succession
English, Bavarian, and Austrian troops under Marlborough defeat the French at the Battle of Blenheim and save Austria from invasion. -British capture Gibraltar from Spain
Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Ramillies, and expels the French from the Netherlands
he Act of Union unites the kingdoms of England and Scotland
James Edward Stuart, 'The Old Pretender', arrives in Scotland in an unsuccessful attempt to gain the throne.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, completed by Sir Christopher Wren
The Treaty of Utrecht is signed by Britain and France, bringing to an end the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Jacobite rising begins in Scotland intending to place the ‘Old Pretender” James Edward Stuart, heir to James II on the throne. The rebellion is defeated at Sheriffmuir.
Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe
First circulating library in Britain opens in Edinburgh, Scotland. -Jonathan Swift publishes Gulliver’s Travels
Charles Wesley founds the Methodists at Lincoln College Oxford.
Founding of Georgia in America.
Britain goes to war with Spain over Captain Jenkins’ ear
Charles Edward Stuart, 'Bonnie Prince Charlie', lands in Scotland and raises his flag for the restoration of the Stuarts
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the war of Austrian Succession
Britain adopts the Georgian Calendar. 1st January replaces 25 March as the first day of the year.
Britain declares war against France. Start of the Seven Years’ War.
Wolfe captures Quebec from the French and establishes British supremacy in Canada.
Peace of Paris ends the Seven Years’ War.
Stamp Act raises taxes in American colonies.
Captain James Cook’s first voyage to explore the Pacific.
Encyclopaedia Britannica is first published.
Boston Tea Party. American colonists protest against British taxes.
American War of Independence begins when colonists fight British troops at Lexington. -James Watt develops the steam engine.
American Congress passes the Declaration of Independence.
Americans supported by the French fleet defeat British at Battle of Yorktown.
The Treaty of Paris ends the American War of Independence. Britain recognizes American independence.
Outbreak of the French Revolution. Storming of the Bastille.
Napoleon defeats the Russians at Austerlitz
Slave Trade Act.
War of 1812 between the British and Americans. American forces stopped from invading Canada.
Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice is published. -Monopoly of the East India company is abolished
The defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo
Publication of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
the Cato Street Conspiracy, fails.
The new London Bridge is opened over the River Thames.
Abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire -Factory Act passed
Births, marriages and deaths must be registered by law -Dickens publishes Oliver Twist, drawing attention to Britain’s poor -Charles Darwin returns from a five year voyage on HMS Beagle researching natural history
First Afghan War.
First colonist settlement in New Zealand
Vaccination against smallpox made compulsory.
Charge of the Light Brigade
First trans-Atlantic telegraph service
Publication of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of the Species.
The world's first underground railway is opened in London -The Salvation Army is founded.
Slavery is ended in America
Canada becomes the first independent dominion in the Empire. -Karl Marx publishes the first volume of Das Kapital
Death of Charles Dickens
Suez Canal shares purchased for Britain. -Thomas Moy demonstrates the worlds first flying machine at Crystal Palace, London
Scots Alexander Graham Bell demonstrates the telephone
Second Afghan War
British occupy Egypt
Greenwich Meridian and Mean Time adopted
Marconi demonstrates wireless transmission
Wilbur and Orville Wright make the first manned and controlled aircraft flight. -The Women’s Social and Political Union is founded
Britain and France sign the Entente Cordiale, -Sigmund Freud publishes Psychopathology of Everyday Life. -Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie is published
Motor buses are first used in London
Production of Ford motor cars begins. -The Triple Entente is signed between Russia, France, and Britain. -The Children’s Act establishes separate juvenile courts to try children. -Old Age Pensions established in Britain
The S.S. Titanic sinks
Reform Act gives votes to women over 30.
Third Afghan War. -Spanish Flu rages around the world killing over 50 million people.
British Broadcasting Corporation founded
All women over theage of 21 get the vote -Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
Battle of Dunkirk
Battle of Britain
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor -America enters the War
End of WWII in Europe
American bombing of Hiroshima
American bombing of Nagasaki
Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated.
nationalization of the Suez Canal.
The Beatles release their first LP.
Concorde begins first supersonic trans-Atlantic flights
Hong Kong reverts to China after 155 years of British rule. -Diana Princess of Wales dies
World Trade Center attack in New York
World wide banking crisis
David I becomes king and introduces the feudal system of landholding to much of Scotland
William the Lion invades England but is captured by Henry II at Alnwick and forced to surrender Scottish independence
William I signs the Treaty of Falaise in which he swears allegiance to Henry II of England.
Offa of Mercia
Egbert of Wessex
Aethelwulf of Wessex
Athelbald of England
Aethelbert of England
Aethelred I of England
Alfred The Great of England
Edward the Elder of England
Athelstan of England
Edmund of England
Edred of England
Edwy (Eadwig) of England
Edgar of England
Edward the Martyr of England
Aethelred II the Unready of England
Cnut (Canute) the Great of England
Harold I Harefoot of England
Harthacnut of England
Edward the Confessor of England
William I the Conqueror of England and Normandy
William II Rufus of England
Henry I of England
Stephen of England
Henry II of England
Richard I the Lionheart of England
John of England
Henry III of England
Edward I Longshanks of England
Edward II of England
Edward III of England
Richard II of England
Henry IV of England
Henry V of England
Henry VI of England
Edward IV of England
Henry VII of England
Henry VIII of England
Edward VI of England
Mary I (Bloody Mary) of England
Elizabeth I the Virgin Queen of England
James I (James IV of Scotland) of England
Charles I of England
Charles II of England
11 yrs. rule of Parliament under Oliver Cromwell
James II of England
William III & Mary II of England
Anne of England
George I of England
George II of England
George III of England
George IV of England
William IV of England
Victoria of England
Edward VII of England
George V of England
George VI of England
Elizabeth II of England
Alpin MacEchdach of Scotland
Kenneth MacAlpin of Scotland
Constantine I of Scotland
Eochaid of Scotland
Donald I of Scotland
Constantine II of Scotland
Malcolm I of Scotland
Indulf of Scotland
Malcolm II of Scotland
Duncan I of Scotland
Macbeth of Scotland
Malcolm III (Canmore) of Scotland
Donald II (Blane) of Scotland
Edgar of Scotland
Alexander I of Scotland
David I of Scotland
Malcolm IV of Scotland
William I the Lion of Scotland
Alexander II of Scotland
Alexander III of Scotland
Margaret Maid of Norway and Scotland
John Balliol of Scotland
Edward I Longshanks of England
Robert the Bruce of Scotland
David II of Scotland
Robert II Stewart of Scotland
Robert III (John) of Scotland
James I of Scotland
James II of Scotland
James III of Scotland
James IV of Scotland
James V of Scotland
Mary Queen of Scots
James IV (James I of England) of Scotland
Ferdinand I (Fernando)
Ferdinand II (Fernando)
Henry I (Enrique)
Ferdinand IV (Fernando)
Peter I (Pedro)
Henry II (Enrique)
John I (Juan)
John II (Juan,)
Henry IV (Enrique)
Ferdinand V (Fernando) & Isabella I (Isabel) of Spain
Joan (Juana) & Philip I (Filipe)
Ferdinand V of Spain
Peter I (Pedro)
Peter II (Pedro)
James I (Jaime)
Peter III (Pedro)
James II (Jaime)
Peter IV (Pedro)
John I (Juan)
Ferdinand I (Fernando)
John II (Juan)
Charles I (Carlos) of Spain
Philip II (Felipe) of Spain
Philip III (Filipe) of Spain
Philip IV (Filipe) of Spain
Charles II (Carlos) of Spain
Philip V (Filipe) of Spain
Philip V of Spain
Ferdinand VI (Fernando) of Spain
Charles III (Carlos) of Spain
Charles IV (Carlos) of Spain
Joseph (Jose) of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Isabella II (Isabel) of Spain
Amadeus I (Amadeo) of Spain
Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso VIII of Spain
Nationalist Regime led by Francisco Franco
Juan Carlos of Spain
Felipe VI of Spain
Charles I the Bald of France
Louis III of France
Charles II the Fat of France
Odo of France
Charles III the Simple of France
Rudolph of France
Louis IV of France
Lothair of France
Hugh Capet of France
Robert II of France
Henry I of France
Philip I of France
Louis VI of France
Louis VII of France
Philip II Augustus of France
Louis VIII of France
Louis IX (Saint Louis) of France
Philip III of France
Philip IV the Fair of France
Philip V of France
Charles IV of France
Philip VI of France
John II of France
Charles V of France
Charles VI of France
Charles VII of France
Louis XI the Prudent, the Spider King of France
Charles VIII of France
Louis VII of France
Francis I of France
Henry II of France
Charles IX of France
Henry III of France
Henry IV of France
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIV the Sun King of France
Louis XV of France
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVII of France
Napoleon I Bonaparte of France
Louis XVIII of France
Charles X of France
Louis-Philippe, the Citizen King of France
Second French Republic
Napoleon III of France
St Paul I
St Leo III
St Paschal I
St Leo IV
St Nicholas I
St Pius V
St Pius X
John Paul II
Cuthred of Kent
Eadberht III Præn
Ecgberht II of Kent
Wihtred of Kent
Hlothhere of Kent
Ecgberht I of Kent
Eorcenberht of Kent
Eadbald of Kent
Æthelberht of Kent
Eormenric of Kent
Octa of Kent
Hengest of Kent
Horsa of Kent
Oisc of Kent
Eadwald of E. Anglia
Æthelberht of E. Anglia
Æthelred I of E. Anglia
Alberht of E. Anglia
Ælfwald of E. Anglia
Ealdwulf of E. Anglia
Æthelwold of E. Anglia
Anna of E. Anglia
Ecgric of E. Anglia
Sigeberht of E. Anglia
Rædwald of E. Anglia
Tytila of E. Anglia
Wuffa of E. Anglia
Coenwulf of Mercia
Æthelbald of Mercia
Ceolred of Mercia
Coenred of Mercia
Æthelred I of Mercia
Wulfhere of Mercia
Oswiu of Northumbria
Penda of Mercia
Cearl of Mercia
Pybba of Mercia
Creoda of Mercia
Sigered of Essex
Sigeric of Essex
Swithred of Essex
Saelred of Essex
Sigeheard of Essex
Sæbbi of Essex
Swithhelm of Essex
Sigeberht the Good of Essex
Sigeberht the Little of Essex
Saeward of Essex
Sæberht of Essex
Sledd of Essex
Æscwine of Essex
Beortric of Wessex
Cynewulf of Wessex
Cuthred of Wessex
Æthelheard of Wessex
Ine of Wessex
Cædwalla of Wessex
Centwine of Wessex
Æscwine of Wessex
Cenwalh of Wessex
Penda of Mercia
Cenwalh of Wessex
Cwichelm of Wessex
Cynegils of Wessex
Ceolwulf of Wessex
Ceol of Wessex
Ceawlin of Wessex
Cynric of Wessex
Cerdic of Wessex
St Leo I
St Felix III
St Galasius I
St John I
St Felix IV
St Gregory I
St Boniface IV
St Martin I
St Sergius I
St Gregory II
St Gregory III
Black Plague Sweeps through Europe
The Second Crusade
The First Crusade
The Third Crusade
The Fourth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade
The Sixth Crusade
The Seventh Crusade
The Eighth Crusade
The Ninth Crusade
The Hundred Years War
War of the Roses
17,000 die of the Plague in London
The War of Austrian Succession
First Opium War
Irish Potato Famine
American Civil War
World War I
The Great Depression
Spanish Civil War
World War II
Fourth Afghan War
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