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Manetho, Greco-Egyptian historian, says Jews were expelled from Egypt as lepers.
Massacre of the Jews of Alexandria (Egypt) in which 50,000 were killed.
Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East, legalizes the civil inferiority of the Jews.
Persecutions of the Jews in Persia (Babylonia).
First Crusades. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland (1096).
Anti-Jewish riots in Rhineland by the Crusaders of the second Crusades.
King Philip Augustus of France decrees the expulsion of the Jews from his kingdom and the confiscation of their real estate.
Anti-Jewish riots in England: massacre at York, and other cities.
Severe anti-Jewish persecutions in western France.
Black Death Massacres which spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria, as a result of accusations that the Jews had caused the death of Christians by poisoning the wells and other water sources.
Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
Ghetto established at Ferrara (Italy).
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
Abduction of a 7-year-old Jewish child, Edgard Mortara, in Bologna by Catholic conversionists (Mortara Case), an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.
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