September 30, 2021
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⟶ Updated 25 Sep 2017 ⟶
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Born in Roccasecca, Aquino, Kingdom of Sicily (present-day Lazio region, Italy) Born as Tommaso d'Aquino
Died on March 7 in Fossanova, Papal States
Canonized on July 18 in Avignon in Papal States by Pope John XXII In the Roman Catholic Church, canonized is when a dead person is officially declared to be a saint.
Started early education at Monte Cassino
His parents had enrolled him at the studium generale (university)
Joined Dominican Order (Order of Preachers)
Thomas's parents didn't support his decision to join The Dominicans so they arranged to move him to Rome and then to Paris. But on his way to Rome, his brothers, following his mother's instructions, took him back to his parents' castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano.
Thomas was held prisoner for in his family castle for one year as an attempt to prevent him from joining the Dominicans.
Thomas's mother realized that she couldn't change Thomas's mind about the Dominican and sought to save the family's dignity. She arranged for him to escape at night through his window. She thought that a secret escape from detention was better than an open surrender.
Thomas met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus then followed him to teaching job at the new studium generale at Cologne
In 1245 Thomas was sent to study at the Faculty of the Arts at the University of Paris
Thomas taught as an apprentice professor (baccalaureus biblicus), instructing students on the books of the Old Testament and writing Expositio super Isaiam ad litteram (Literal Commentary on Isaiah), Postilla super Ieremiam (Commentary on Jeremiah) and Postilla super Threnos (Commentary on Lamentations)
He returned to Paris and studied for a master's degree in theology.
He lectured on the Bible as an apprentice professor upon becoming a bachelor of the Sentences (baccalaureus Sententiarum).
He devoted the last three years of study to commenting on Peter Lombard's Sentences. Thomas composed a huge commentary on the Sentences titled Scriptum super libros Sententiarium in the first of his four theological syntheses.
He wrote De ente et essentia (On Being and Essence) for his fellow Dominicans in Paris.
Thomas was appointed regent master in theology at Paris and one of his first works upon assuming office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem (Against Those Who Assail the Worship of God and Religion) which was defending the mendicant orders of William of Saint-Amour.
Thomas wrote Questiones disputatae de veritate (Disputed Questions on Truth), which is twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition.
He then wrote Quaestiones quodlibetales (Quodlibetal Questions), which is his answers to questions that were asked to him by the academic audience.
Thomas was working on one of his most famous works, Summa contra Gentiles.
He wrote both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate (Commentary on Boethius's De trinitate) and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus (Commentary on Boethius's De hebdomadibus), commentaries on the works of 6th-century Roman philosopher Boethius.
While he was riding on a donkey, on his way to the Council, he struck his head on the branch of a fallen tree and became seriously ill.
"I have written and taught much about this very holy Body, and about the other sacraments in the faith of Christ, and about the Holy Roman Church, to whose correction I expose and submit everything I have written." Thomas Aquinas's last prayer.
Thomas took leave from the University of Paris when the Dominicans from his home asked him to establish a studium generale wherever he liked and staff it however he chose.
He established the institution in Naples, and moved there to take his post as regent master.
While at Naples, he worked on the third part of the Summa while also giving lectures on various religious topics.
He preached to the people of Naples every day in Lent. The sermons on the commandments, the creed, the Our Father and Hail Mary were very popular.
Thomas was assigned to be regent master at the University of Paris for the second time.
He finished the second part of the Summa and wrote De virtutibus and De aeternitate mundi, contra murmurantes (On the Eternity of the World, against Grumblers)
Thomas began his most famous work, the Summa theologiae.
He was appointed as a general preacher in Naples
He finished writing the Summa contra Gentiles, wrote the Catena aurea (The Golden Chain) in Orvieto where he was called to be a conventual lector.
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