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King John of england signed the Magna Carter, agreeing to have a council of barons and stop hiring foreign soldiers. it also gave the people some rights and said the king was not above the law.
The fall of the western Roman Empire. Rome had ruled much of Europe. Now much of the land would fall into confusion as local kings and rulers tried to grab power. This is the start of the Dark Ages or the Middle Ages.
Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne united much of Western Europe and is considered the father of both the French and the German Monarchies.
Vikings from the Scandinavian lands (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) begin to invade northern Europe. They would continue until 1042.
Start of the First Crusade. The Crusades were wars between the Holy Roman Empire and the Muslims over the Holy Land. There would be several Crusades over the next 200 years.
The Hundred Years War begins between England and France for control of the French throne.
The Black Death begins in Europe.
joan of arc killed by england (burnt at the stake).) most famously known to have led the french the victory in Orlean
German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press. Signals the beginning of the Renaissance
fall of eastern roman empire. End of medival period
Cosimo de Medici establishes the Medici family's dominance in Florence
The Spanish Inquisition begins.
Boccaccio completes writing "The Decameron" on the effects of the Black Plague
Niccolo Machiavelli publishes "The Prince" -"The end justifies the means"
The reformation movement begins. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door
Michelangelo starts painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Il' duomo finished by brunnelleshi in florence
French Invasions begin in Italy "First Italian War"
girrolamo Savonarola became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498
Frnce was removed from Italy in 1498, Savonarola was imprisoned and then burned at the stake.
Sack of Rome in by armies of Holy Roman Emperor CharlesV (king of Spain) symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy
Medici family returns to power in florence
Luther is excommunicated from the church by Pope leo X in 1520. He threw the Papal bull in a fire
Diet of Worms. Assempby of the HRE put luther under trial. Luther refused to refute his ideas
Luther publishes the first German bible
William Tyndale, a humanist, translated the English Bible in 1526
Pilgrimage of Grace. opposion to Henry VIII new anglican church led to a huge multi- class rebellion; the largest in English history
Peasants war 1524-1525 peasants wrote the twelve articles in 1525 demanding realease of opression in feudalism in germany. Luther allowed the killing of these peasants
peace of augsburg in germany, princes could choose catholic or protestant, created religious division
Group of anabatist led by John of Leyden took control of munster in Germany. they burned books and killed peoples of different religens
Tragedy at Muster: Combined forces of catholic and protestants captured the city and executed the anabaptist leaders
Colloquy of Marburg (1529): Ulrich Zwingli officially splitwith Luther over issue of Eucharist
Netherlands declares it's independance
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (italian wars waged to dominate italian city states
Battle of Lepanto Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece
Spanish armada, Spain fails to invade England
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
Edict of Nantes, Henry IV granted a degree of religious toleration to Huguenots
Defenestration of Prague; The Holy Roman Emperor placed severe restrictions on Protestantism, started dispute
Edict of Restitution: The Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church
Battle of Breitenfeld, victory for Gustav’s forces that ended Hapsburg hopes ofreuniting Germany under Catholicism
Treaty of Westphalia (1648): ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany
Siege of Vienna: Successfully repelled Turks from gates of Vienna in 1683 Last attempt by the Ottoman Empire to take central Europe.
Treaty ofNystad :Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its “Window on the West”in the Baltic Sea.
Peace of Alais: Huguenots lost fortified cities and protestat armies
Storming of the Bastille Parisian” revolution began in response to food shortages, soaring bread prices, 25% unemployment, and fear of military repression.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen issued August 26, 1789
flight to Varennes: Louis XVI tried to escape France in June to avoid having to approve the Constitution of 1791
Brunswick Manifesto issued by Prussia and Austria and threatened to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed.
France was proclaimed a republic
Louis XVI convicted of treason and executed
the constitution gives supreme power to Napoleon.
Concordat of 1801 with Roman Catholic Church
Treaty of Lunèville -Ended the Second Coalition. -Resulted in Austria’s loss of its Italian possessions. -germany loses west bank of the rhine
Napoleon crowned himself hereditary Emperor of France
Battle of Trafalgar, French and Spanish fleets were destroyed by the British navy under the command of Lord Horatio Nelson, off the Spanish coast.
Treaty of Utrecht: marked downfall of the Dutch
Berlin Decree, 1806: Napoleon sought to starve Britain out by closing ports on the continent to British commerce.
1862 Otto von Bismarck was appointed prime minister of Prussia.
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