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History of agricultural manipulation
9 months ago
10,000 BC Civilization domesticates crops and animals by selectively breeding from natural biological diversity
3000 BC Beer, cheese, wine creation through manipulation of microorganisms
Identification of principles of inheritance by Gregor Mendel in 1865, laying the foundation for classical breeding methods
1930s Development of commercial hybrid crops in the Green Revolution
1940s to 1960s Use of mutagenesis, tissue culture, plant regeneration. Discovery of transformation and transduction. Discovery by Watson and Crick of the structure of DNA in 1953. Identification of genes that detach and move (transposons)
1970s Advent of gene transfer through recombinant DNA techniques. Use of embryo rescue and protoplast fusion in plant breeding and artificial insemination in animal reproduction
1990s Genetic fingerprinting of many organisms. Embryo rescue, protoplast fusion for breeding and artificial insemination
2000s ~ Development of bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics. Genome editing with CRISPR Cas9 in 2013.
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