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History: Chinese 1900s timeline
6 months ago
9 months ago
"Boxer Rebellion" in Northern China seeks to stifle reforms in the Qing administration, drive out foreigners and re-establish traditional rule. Defeated by foreign intervention, with Western powers, Russia and Japan extracting further concessions from weakened Qing government.
Military revolts by reform-minded officers lead to proclamation of Republic of China under Sun Yat-sen and abdication of last Qing emperor. Republic struggles to consolidate its rule amid regional warlordism and the rise of the Communist Party.
The death of Sun Yat-sen brings Chiang Kai-Shek to the fore. He breaks with the Communists and confirms to governing Kuomintang as a nationalist party.
Japan invades and gradually occupies more and more of China
Mao Zedong emerges as Communist leader during the party's "Long March" to its new base in Shaanxi Province.
Kuomintang and Communists nominally unite against Japanese. Civil war resumes after Japan's defeat in Second World War.
Mao Zedong, having led the Communists to victory against the Nationalists after more than 20 years of civil war, proclaims the founding of the People's Republic of China. The Nationalists retreats to the island of Taiwan and set up a government there.
China sends people's Liberation Army (PLA) troops into Tibet enforcing a longstanding claim.
Mao launches the "Great Leap Forward", a five- year economic plan. Farming is collectivized and labor-intensive industry is introduced. The drive produces economic breakdown and is abandoned after two years. Disruption to agriculture is blamed for the deaths by starvation of millions of people following poor harvests.
Chinese forces suppress large-scale revolt in Tibet
Brief conflict with India over disputed Himalayan border.
"Cultural Revolution", Mao's 10 years political and ideological campaign aimed at reviving revolutionary spirit, produces massive social, economic and political upheaval.
US President Richard Nixon visits. Both countries declare a desire to normalise relations
Mao dies. "Gang of Four", including Mao's widow, jockey for power but are arrested and convicted of crimes against the state.
Sun Yat-sen named "Provisional President" Yuan Shi-kai brokers Qing "surrender"
Establishment of Republic of China
Yuan Shikai becomes first president
Sun Yat-sen establishes the "National People's Party"
Nationalists win first (and only) fully democratic national election in China -- Yuan Shikai dissolves new parliament
Japan inssues the "Twenty-One Demands"
Yuan Shikai dies
National government in Beijing in hands of loyalists of northers "Warlord" strongmen
Chinese Communist Party established the Beijing
Chiang Kai-shek consolidates power within KMT
The "Nanjing Decade" -- KMT in control; capital in Nanjing
Chinese Communist Party in Jiangxi (in southeast)-- Period of "Jiangxi Soviet"
Japanese army stages phony "Mukden Incident" as pretext to invade all Manchuria and establish puppet state of Manchukuo
Chinese Communist Party in Yan'an (in northwest) -- the "Yan'an Period
Chinese Communist Party introduces moderate land reform in North
Development of Maoist ideology "Yan'an Sprit" and leadership of "English Route Army" (later "People's LIberation Army", or PLA)
Chinese Communist Party leadership in hands o of Mao (general leader & ideologue), Zhou Enlai (diplomacy), Zhu De (military)
Xi'an Incident-- Chiang Kai-shek kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang. Chiang's release initiates KMT- Chinese Communist Party United Front against Japan (to 1942)
The War of Resistance Against Japan begins with Marco Polo Bridge Incident
KMT government retreats to Chongqing in southwest
"Liberation"-- KMT forces retreats to Taiwan Establishment of the Peole's Republic of China
Hundred Flowers Campaign
Socialist Education Camapign
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