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Boyle, Sir Robert (1637-1691)
Torricelli, Evangelista (1643) Invented the mercury barometer
Priestley, Joseph (1733-1804) Discovered oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Proposed electrical inverse-square law (1767).
Scheele, C.W. (1742-1786) Discovered chlorine, tartaric acid, metal oxidation, and sensitivity of silver compounds to light (photochemistry)
Lavoisier, A.L. (1743-1794) Discovered nitrogen. Described the composition of many organic compounds.
Jenner, Edward (1749-1823) Development of smallpox vaccine (1776)
Dalton, John (1766-1844) Proposed atomic theory based on measurable masses (1807). Stated law of partial pressure of gasses.
Avogadro, Amedeo (1776-1856) Proposed principle that equal volumes of gasses contain the same number of molecules. nt
Gay-Lussac, J.L. (1778-1850) Discovered boron and iodine. Discovered acid-base indicators (litmus). Improved method for making sulfuric acid. Researched behavior of gasses.
Wohler, F. (1800-1882) First synthesis of an organic compound (urea, 1828).
Pasteur, Louis (1822-1895) First recognition of bacteria as disease-causing agents. Developed field of immunochemistry. Introduced heat-sterilization of wine and milk (pasteurization). Saw optical isomers (enantiomers) in tartaric acid.
Sturgeon, William (1823) Invented the electromagnet.
Nobel, Alfred (1833-1896) Invented dynamite, smokeless powder, and blasting gelatin. Established international awards for achievements in chemistry, physics, and medicine (Nobel Prize).
Mendeléev, Dmitri (1834-1907) Discovered periodicity of the elements. Compiled the first Periodic Table with elements arranged into 7 groups (1869).
Gibbs, Josiah W. (1839-1903) Stated three principal laws of thermodynamics. Described the nature of entropy and established a relation between chemical, electric, and thermal energy.
Roentgen, W.K. (1845-1923) Discovered x-radiation (1895). Nobel Prize in 1901.
Lord Kelvin (1838) Described the absolute zero point of temperature.
Becquerel, H. (1851-1908) Discovered radioactivity of uranium (1896) and deflection of electrons by magnetic fields and gamma rays. Nobel Prize in 1903 (with the Curies).
Thomson, Sir J.J. (1856-1940) Research on cathode rays proved existence of electrons (1896). Nobel Prize in 1906.
Curie, Marie (1867-1934) With Pierre Curie, discovered and isolated radium and polonium (1898). Studied radioactivity of uranium. Nobel Prize in 1903 (with Becquerel) in physics; in chemistry 1911.
Rutherford, Sir Ernest (1871-1937) Discovered that uranium radiation is composed of positively charged 'alpha' particles and negatively charged 'beta' particles (1989/1899). First to prove radioactive decay of heavy elements and to perform a transmutation reaction (1919). Discovered half-life of radioactive elements. Established that the nucleus was small, dense, and positively charged. Assumed that electrons were outside the nucleus. Nobel Prize in 1908.
Maxwell, James Clerk (1873) Proposed that electric and magnetic fields filled space.
Aston, F.W. (1877-1945) Pioneer research on isotope separation by mass spectrograph. Nobel Prize 1922.
Sir William Crookes (1879) Discovered that cathode rays travel in straight lines, impart a negative charge, are deflected by electric and magnetic fields (indicating negative charge), cause glass to fluoresce, and cause pinwheels in their path to spin (indicating mass).
Flemming, Sir Alexander (1881-1955) Discovered the antibiotic penicillin (1928). Nobel Prize in 1945.
Hertz, Heinrich (1887) Discovered the photoelectric effect.
Moseley, Henry G.J. (1887-1915) Discovered the relation between the frequency of the x-rays emitted by an element and its atomic number (1914). His work led to the reorganization of the periodic table based on an atomic number rather than atomic mass.
Hertz, Heinrich (1888) Discovered radio waves.
Banting, Sir Frederick (1891-1941) Isolated the insulin molecule. Nobel Prize in 1923.
Chadwick, Sir James (1891-1974) Discovered the neutron (1932). Nobel Prize in 1935.
Urey, Harold C. (1894-1981) One of the leaders of the Manhattan Project. Discovered deuterium. Nobel Prize 1934.
Thomson, Joseph J. (1897) Discovered the electron. Used a cathode ray tube to experimentally determine the charge to mass ratio of an electron. Found that 'canal rays' were associated with the proton H+.
Kistiakowsky, George B. (1900-1982) Devised the detonating device used in the first atomic bomb.
Fermi, Enrico (1901-1954) First to achieve a controlled nuclear fission reaction (1939/1942). Performed fundamental research on subatomic particles. Nobel Prize in 1938.
Libby, Wilard F. (1908-1980) Developed carbon-14 dating technique. Nobel Prize in 1960.
Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds (1909) Demonstrated that alpha particles are doubly ionized helium atoms.
Bohr, Niels (1913) Devised quantum model of the atom in which atoms had orbital shells of electrons.
Crick, F.H.C (1916- ) with Watson, James D. Described the structure of the DNA molecule (1953).
Woodward, Robert W. (1917-1979) Synthesized many compounds, including cholesterol, quinine, chlorophyll, and cobalamin. Nobel Prize in 1965
Chadwick, James (1932) Discovered the neutron.
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