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AP Euro MP2 Top 20 ID Hierarchy
8 Jan 2018
People: John Locke John Locke was a philosopher and physician and he is widely regarded as being one of the most influential philosophers of his time. In 1690 he published "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." I chose to include John Locke in this timeline instead of Thomas Hobbes, a different Enlightenment-era philosopher. While Thomas Hobbes' contributions to philosophy are notable, John Locke had more of a long-term influence in Europe and America. (Source: Wikipedia)
People: Rene Descartes Rene Descartes is one of the most revolutionary philosophical and mathematical minds to come from the Enlightenment movement. He introduced many ideas into mathematics that we still use to this day, such as the rule of signs. I chose Descartes over another philosopher/mathematician, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, because Descartes is an example of someone in the same field of work who accomplished so much more than Leibniz did in the long run. (Source: Wikipedia)
People: Louis XIV of France Louis XIV was one of the most influential rulers of France. He popularized absolutist monarchies, he brought order in a time of chaos, and he was a patron of the arts and sciences as well as having a small team of advisors to help him make decisions. I chose Louis XIV and not his father, Louis XIII, because Louis XIV had much more influence over France and over Europe as a whole.
People: William Shakespeare Shakespeare is perhaps the most well-known English playwright of all time. He begun writing plays around the year 1592 and his plays have been some of the most influential plays to the English language as a whole, even centuries later. Shakespeare is well-deserving of a spot on this top 20 list for his fame throughout time, being so well-known even 400 years later.
People: Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton is most popular for bringing to light his laws of motion and universal gravitation. Principia, published on July 5th, 1687, shared these ideas with the world and is still referenced today in scientific studies. Newton's scientific advancements earned him a spot on the list because of their long-lasting important effects in the field of science.
People: Queen Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I, although not as influential as Louis XIV, had some long-lasting events during her reign. One of these is the establishment of an English Protestant Church under the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. (Source: Wikipedia)
People: Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, ruled the commonwealth from 1653 until his death in 1658. Cromwell is a very controversial leader, having killed thousands but also having a reputation as a hero of liberty. Because of his influence on history I felt he deserved a spot on the list.
Idea: The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment begun in the year 1715 and brought with it some of the most influential and long-lasting philosophical ideas. The beginning of such an era is very important and such it deserves a spot on this list.
People: Galileo Galileo is one of the most famous names in science, and for good reason. He proposed the idea of heliocentrism, theorizing that the earth is not in fact the center of the universe. Instead, the earth and all the other planets in the galaxy rotate around the sun. Galileo proved this with astronomical findings and was killed for it. To this day, he is known as the "father of modern physics, the father of the scientific method, and even the father of science."
Idea: Empiricism The idea of empiricism most likely begun with the publication of John Locke's "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding." The idea emphasizes evidence-based science, especially evidence that is discovered through experiments. This would be important to shape the scientific method for centuries to come. (Source: Wikipedia)
Event: The British Colonization of America begins The British Colonization of America is what set up the country that we know today as the United States. It began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia. This would later be controversial, but it has earned a spot on the list due to the rich history behind it and the effects that it has had in the long term.
Event: Charles I is beheaded This event was immensely important for the people of England. They had been living under Charles' rule for too long and they had begun to suspect him of high treason. The people of England held a trial for Charles I and found him guilty. He was executed on January 30th, 1649 for treason.
Idea: Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution started in 1543 and lasted until the late 18th century. The revolution brought many great ideas to fruition for science and scientific advancements, and deserves a spot on the top 20 list for all the long-lasting ideas it has brought. (Source for dates: Wikipedia)
Idea: Absolutist Monarchy Louis XIV brought with his reign the idea of an absolute monarchy. This is the idea that the king has absolute power over everything that cannot be controlled by law or other people in government. This would be an important governmental system in France and in Europe overall for a long time after his death, so for its long-term influence it has earned a spot on the top 20 list. (Source: Wikipedia)
Idea: The Social Contract The theory of the Social Contract was contributed to by a few philosophers including John Locke from 1625 to 1689. According to Wikipedia, the concept of the Social Contract was to "question the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. This would go on to be extremely important for philosophy in later years.
Event: The Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a religious war that lasted for thirty years and has gone down in history as one of the bloodiest and most destructive wars of Europe. It begun as a war between the Protestants and Catholics. The war has earned a spot on the list because it is far too important of an event to leave out as the deadliest war in European history.
Event: The Eighty Years' War The Eighty Years' War was a revolution of the Netherlands against the Habsburg empire. The revolution lasted for eighty years, as the name of the event would imply. After eighty long years of revolution, the Dutch finally gained their independence. This is an important piece of European history and has had quite a few influences on history in the long run, so it has earned a spot on the timeline.
Event: The Wars of Religion in France The Wars of Religion in France between Protestants and French Calvinists (Huguenots) was a series of bloody conflicts. It was ended in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes, a document that, although later revoked by Louis XIV, would be influential in its time.
Event: English Civil War The English Civil War was fought between Parliamentarians and Royalists over the English government. It eventually ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the battle of Worcester in 1651 and the execution of Charles I. (Source: Wikipedia)
Event: War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession was fought from 1701 to 1714 and was triggered by the death of the last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, who had no heir to the throne. It resulted in the Treaty of Utrecht, which recognized Louis XIV's grandson Philip as the heir to the throne.
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