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History of Philosophical Thought Regarding Mind-Brain Relations:
2 months ago
Hippocrates “…pleasure, joy and laughter, but also sorrow, pain, grief and tears rise from the brain, and the brain alone…”
Plato Described the human brain as whitish, gelatinous, and semen-looking → said it was the source of the mind
Aristotle said that the pumping heart and flowing mind made up the living mind because they were quick, moving, and alive; thought the brain served as simply a cooling unit (said it wasn’t lively enough to be the source of the mind)
Galen Was a physician to the gladiators; said that rational thought is stored in the brain, but that it also keeps flowing as a liquid source → was referring to brain ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid → thought different ventricles had different roles (front = senses, middle = reason, & back = emotion and movement)
Leonardo Da Vinci: a neuroscience experimenter 1st experiment: filled an Ox’s head with hot wax to determine the real (“inflated”) shape of a living brain 2nd experiment: mapped the ventricles again and flipped reason and sensation’s location in the brain (front = reason, middle = senses, & back = emotion and movement)
Rene Descartes Said that mind and matter and two separate domains that interact with one another (dualism) and therefore touch somewhere in the body (pineal gland) → believed the body functioned like a hydraulic machine, in the sense that he believed that when nerves experience physical sensations, they cause ripples in body fluid that travel up to the pineal gland, which then causes a psychological sensation; said that only the mind (not the fluid) can be a soul
Hydraulic machine model → electrochemical machine
Dualism Says the mind and brain are separate but interact
Reductionism Says the brain causes the mind in a one-way causation
Emergentism Says that the mind is a higher-order entity; contrasts with reductionism, as it believes there is a two-way causation between the brain and the mind Analogy: ocean waves and water molecules
4th century B.C.
2nd century B.C.
20th century - Modern Day
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