October 31, 2022
For educational institutions
A history of Ancient Israel
⟶ Updated 12 Feb 2018 ⟶
List of edits
The Romans (with Titus as their leader) completely destroy Jerusalem and the temple is demolished, never to be built again. 'Not one stone left standing on top of another' Jewish independence is lost till the state of Israel is established in 1948.
Samaria was besieged and conquered by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V in 722 B.C.E., who deported the inhabitants to Assyria (capital: Nineveh on the Tigris River),
In 587 B.C.E Jerusalem fell to the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar (the Assyrian power had been broken in 612 B.C.E) and the Jews were deported to Babylon in Mesopotamia (the Babylonian Exile). ( The book of Daniel is based in this time period)
Cyrus the Persian conquered Babylon in 538 B.C.E. and freed the Jews , allowing them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple. This was the period of the prophets such as Haggai, Zechariah, Nehemiah and Malachi.
The formal beginning of the Hellenistic period for the Jews.
Alexander’s death in 323 B.C.E., the Middle East, including Palestine, fell to two generals, Seleucid and Ptolemy and subsequently to their successors.
The Jewish Law is translated into Greek.
In 198 B.C.E., all Israel came under Seleucid rule.
In 170 B.C.E Antiochus IV, a Seleucid, attacked Egypt and had himself crowned king of Egypt.
On his way back to Antioch (169 B.C.E) Antiochus sacked Jerusalem and desecrated the Temple (cf. 1 Maccabees 1:16; 2 Maccabees 5:15; Daniel 11:24-28).
The Hasmonean Revolt and the begining of the Hasmonenean dynasty
In 63 B.C.E the Romans conquered all Palestine and established local subjects to rule on their behalf,
The End of the Hasmonean Dynasty
Romans recognised Herod the Great as king of the Jews and placed him as ruler over all Jewish territory, i.e. Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Perea (Greek word for “beyond” – beyond the Jordan), and lands east and west northeast of Galilee.
Death of Herod the Great
The Birth of Jesus
The Cricufiction of Jesus Christ
Herod Antipas is crowned King of Galilee and Perea (Capital: Tiberius after Emperor Tiberius, 14-37 C.E.
Archelaus was deposed in 6 C.E and his territory placed under a Roman governor, who happened to be Pontius Pilate (26-36 C.E) at the time of Jesus’ crucifixion (cf. Mk 15:1, Luke 3:1-2).
Julius Ceasar becomes the Roman leader
Caesar Augustus becomes emporor
Tiberius becomes Emperor of Rome
Caligula becomes Emperor of Rome
Claudius becomes Emperor of Rome (41-54 C.E),
Nero, the first persecutor of Christians (54-68 C.E, becomes Emporor
Vespasian (68-79 C.E), becomes the Emperor of Rome
Jews in Palestine tried to revolt (66 C.E) under Vaspian
Titus becomes Emperor of Rome
David and Solomon are kings in Jerusalem. The first Jewish Temple is built there by King Solomon.
The northern kingdom is destroyed by the Assyrians and its population exiled and lost.
The earlier Books of the Prophets, including most of the book of Isaiah, are written
The first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Babylonians.
The later Prophetic books, including Jeremiah and Ezekiel, are written
One hundred and twenty sages of the Great Assembly collate the Hebrew Bible (the 'Old Testament').
Collation of the old testameant is completed
Exodus and the Sinai Covenant (c. 1250 B.C.E)
The Monarchy (c. 1020 B.C.E)
Divided Kingdoms (931 – 721 B.C.E)
Fall of the Kingdom and the Captives (722 – 538 B.C.E)
The Restoration (538 – 333 B.C.E)
The Jews under Hellenistic Rule (333 – 63 B.C.E)
Roman Rule (till the destruction of Jerusalem ) 63 B.C.-70 A.D
Israel is ruled by the Judges (Judges, Chronicles)
The Babylonian Exile
The Hasmonean Dynasty
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