June 30, 2022
For educational institutions
unit 5 assignment 1
quantum mechanical theory
⟶ Updated 9 Mar 2020 ⟶
List of edits
thomas young discovers that light is made up as waves
gustav kirchhoff introduces the concept of the black body and then proved that it only relies on heat
becquerel and curie share the Nobel prize in physics for instantaneous radioactivity
Einstein explains the effects of Brownian motion as caused by the kinetic energy (i.e., movement) of atoms
Einstein publishes his theory of relativity
Rutherford designs his gold slit experiment to discover the nucleus of an atom
Hess discovers cosmic radiation
James Franck and Gustav Hertz report their experiment on electron collisions with mercury atoms, which provides a new test of Bohr's quantized model of atomic energy levels.
Einstein first presents what are now known as the Einstein field equations.
Sir Ernest Rutherford notices that, when alpha particles are shot into nitrogen gas, his scintillation detectors shows the signatures of hydrogen nuclei.
Arthur Compton finds that X-ray wavelengths increase due to scattering of the radiant energy by free electrons.
Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan develop the matrix mechanics formulation of Quantum Mechanics.
Erwin Schrödinger uses De Broglie's electron wave postulate to develop a "wave equation" that represents mathematically the distribution of a charge of an electron distributed through space,
Dirac hypothesizes the existence of the positron. his text book become published and is still used today
Fritz London explains van der Waals forces as due to the interacting fluctuating dipole moments between molecules
Erich Hückel introduces the Hückel molecular orbital method, which expands on orbital theory to determine the energies of orbitals of pi electrons in conjugated hydrocarbon systems.
Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot show that if the unknown radiation generated by alpha particles falls on paraffin or any other hydrogen-containing compound, it ejects protons of very high energy.
Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen describe the EPR paradox which challenges the completeness of quantum mechanics as it was theorized up to that time.
Schrödinger developes his thought experiment that sub atomic particles can be in two opposing states at once
Charles Coulson makes the first accurate calculation of a molecular orbital wavefunction with the hydrogen molecule.
Leó Szilárd and Fermi discover neutron multiplication in uranium, proving that a chain reaction is indeed possible.
the Manhattan Project produces the first nuclear fission explosion on July 16, 1945
Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford measure a small difference in energy between the energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 of the hydrogen atom, known as the Lamb shift.
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell receive a shared Nobel Prize in Physics for their first observations of the quantum phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance previously reported in 1949
Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines experimentally prove the existence of the neutrino.
Clauss Jönsson performs Young's double-slit experiment for the first time with particles other than photons by using electrons and with similar results, confirming that massive particles also behaved according to the wave–particle duality that is a fundamental principle of quantum field theory.
Eugene P. Wigner lays the foundation for the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics
Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen share with Eugene P. Wigner half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure theory"
Stanford University: Deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) show that the proton contains much smaller, point-like objects and is therefore not an elementary particle. Physicists at the time are reluctant to identify these objects with quarks, instead calling them partons — a term coined by Richard Feynman.
Peter Mansfield formulates the physical theory of Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)
Pyotr Kapitsa observes new phenomena in hot deuterium plasmas excited by very high power microwaves in attempts to obtain controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions in such plasmas placed in longitudinal magnetic fields, using a novel and low-cost design of thermonuclear reactor, similar in concept to that reported by Theodor V. Ionescu et al. in 1969. Receives a Nobel prize for early low temperature physics experiments on helium superfluidity carried out in 1937 at the Cavendish Lab
Richard R. Ernst develops two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-FT NMRS) for small molecules in solution and is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy."
scientists at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) publish experimental results in which they claim to have observed indirect evidence of the existence of a quark–gluon plasma, which they call a "new state of matter."
Sir Anthony James Leggett receives the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics for pioneering contributions to the quantum theory of superconductors, and superfluids such as Helium-3
the RHIC accelerator of Brookhaven National Laboratory generates a quark-gluon fluid, perhaps the quark–gluon plasma
Scientists transfer data by quantum teleportation over a distance of 10 feet with zero percent error rate , a vital step towards a quantum internet.
The existence of Higgs boson was confirmed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on proton-proton collisions in the LHC at CERN. Peter Higgs and François Englert were awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical predictions.
Zachary Dutton demonstrates how photons can co-exist in superconductors.
Einstein shows that, if Planck's law of black-body radiation is accepted, the energy quanta must also carry momentum p = h / λ, making them full-fledged particles.
Sir Nevill Mott and Philip Warren Anderson publish quantum theories for electrons in non-crystalline solids, such as glasses and amorphous semiconductors; receive in 1977 a Nobel prize in Physics for their investigations into the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems,
The largest and most powerful experimental nuclear fusion tokamak reactor in the world, Joint European Torus (JET) begins operation at Culham Facility in UK;
Mihai Gavrilă discovers in 1988 the new quantum phenomenon of atomic dichotomy in hydrogen and subsequently publishes a book on the atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields of hydrogen atoms placed in ultra-intense laser fields.
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