April 15, 2020
For educational institutions
History of Language
⟶ Updated 2 months ago ⟶
List of edits
STANDARDISATION: 1476 Caxtons Printing Press
1755 Samuel Johnsons Dictionary = first major effort to impose order on langauge
1551 John Hart wrote a text on how to use punctuation.
1586 William Billokar began a series of texts giving rules on grammar.
1600-1700 Early Modern English
Great Vowel Shift caused a change of pronunciation - Dialects mixing because of people moving south escape the black death. - Increasing number of French loan words in the English language (make them sound less French) - Vowels pronounced higher up in mouth eg "route" can rhyme with "boot" or with "out" eg décider In English we say dee-side, but in French the letter i is pronounced /i/ (with an ee sound).
EME FEATURES - Non standard and inconsistent authography eg intire (entire) or sickness - sicknesse - Anglo Saxon endings to indicate tense eg sayest, lacketh - Non Standard syntax (sentence structure) - Random capitalisation to indicate significant lexis - Archaic lexis eg Maine (mainland) - Absence of apostrophes - Non Standard punctuation
17th Century Latin Revival Scholars became interested in classical texts which introduced sophisticated Latinate words in an attempt to impress. More than 1/2 modern English is from Latin. Eg Encyclopedia, Temperature, Conspicuous, Dignified
MODERN ENGLISH 1700 - Present Features: - Acronyms eg UCAS - Coinage - filling up a lexical gap with a new word. eg Grudge, Jazz - Borrowing - tomato, potato, spaghetti, curry - Affixation - (prefixes) IMmortal, OVERdone, SUBway, UNDERpants - Compounding - combined morphemes eg Microwave, internet - Blends eg Heliport, Brunch, Frenemy, Bromance - Clipping - shortening a word to make it easier to say eg quote, maths, dorm - Neologisms - new words eg hype, plonker, chatline
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