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Military In Afghanistan
11 Jan 2018
British forces invade, install King Shah Shujah. He is assassinated in 1842. British and Indian troops are massacred during retreat from Kabul.
Second Anglo-Afghan War. A treaty gives Britain control of Afghan foreign affairs.
General Mohammed Daud becomes prime minister. Turns to the Soviet Union for economic and military assistance. Introduces social reforms, such as the abolition of purdah (the practice of secluding women from public view).
Mohammed Daud seizes power in a coup and declares a republic.
General Daud is overthrown and killed in a pro-Soviet coup. The People's Democratic Party comes to power but is paralysed by violent infighting and faces opposition by US-backed mujahideen groups.
Soviet Army invades and props up communist government.
Babrak Karmal installed as ruler, backed by Soviet troops. But opposition intensifies with various mujahideen groups fighting Soviet forces. US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia supply money and arms to the mujahideen.
Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces.
US begins supplying mujahideen with weapons. Babrak Karmal replaced by Najibullah as head of Soviet-backed regime.
Afghanistan, USSR, the US and Pakistan sign peace accords and Soviet Union begins pulling out troops.
Najibullah's government toppled, but a devastating civil war follows.
Taliban seize control of Kabul and introduce hard-line version of Islam, banning women from work, and introducing Islamic punishments, which include stoning to death and amputations.
Taliban recognised as legitimate rulers by Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. They now control about two-thirds of country.
US launches missile strikes at suspected bases of militant Osama bin Laden, accused of bombing US embassies in Africa.
Ahmad Shah Masood, leader of the main opposition to the Taliban is assassinated.
UN imposes an air embargo and financial sanctions to force Afghanistan to hand over Osama bin Laden.
The US-led bombing of Afghanistan begins following the September 11 attacks on the United States. Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance forces entered Kabul shortly afterward.
Deployment of first contingent of foreign peacekeepers - the Nato-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) - marking the start of a protracted fight against the Taliban.
President Karzai warns that Afghanistan will send troops into Pakistan to fight militants if Islamabad fails to take action against them.
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