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Conflict and Tension; 1918-1926
Oxford AQA GCSE History book 1 (green)
Conflict and Tension 1918-1939.
Timeline of International Affairs in Europe between the ends of the First World War up till Germany joins the League of Nations.
9 months ago
The Armistice is signed, ending the First World War
The League of Nations has it's first meeting in Geneva, Switzerland
Treaty of Sevres is signed with Turkey: - lost Asian land to Greece - lost all European land except Constantinople - the Ottoman empire was split - 50,000 men max in their army - seven sail boats, six torpedoes in the navy - must open the Dardanelles// Bosphorus Straits - Allied troops were kept in Turkey
Treaty of St Germain is signed with Austria - lost land to Italy and Romania - land was taken to create Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia - Poland was also given land - told to pay reparations, although the amount was never fixed - 30,000 men in the army, no conscription - no navy - Anschluss was forbidden
Treaty of Neuilly is signed with Bulgaria - lost land to Yugoslavia, Greece, and Romania - gained land from Turkey - £100 million reparations - 20,000 in the army, no conscription - no air force, only four battleships
Treaty of Trianon was signed with Hungary - lost land to Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria - told to pay reparations, through the amount was never fixed - 30, 000 men in the army, no conscription - three patrol boats
Treaty of Lausanne is signed with Turkey - overturned the Treaty of Sevres - regained land from Greece - regained control of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus Straits - had the right to decide on the size of their army - reparations were cancelled - the Allied troops were withdrawn This undermined all of the other treaties and proved they were unenforceable to leaders like Hitler and Mussolini
Poland invades Vilna. It was to be the capital of Lithuania, but the majority of people living there wanted to be Polish. Poland took control, and though Lithuania asked the League for help, France saw Poland as an ally, and Britain wouldn't help without the support of other countries.
The Aland Island crisis. Both Sweden and Finland claimed the islands and threatened war on each other. The League solved the dispute by giving the islands to Finland, but banning forts to prevent an attack on Sweden. The League successfully avoided war.
Upper Silesia. Both Germany and Poland claimed the area so a plebiscite was held to decide who should have it, and 60% of people voted Germany. However, Poland claimed most of these votes came from people no longer living in Silesia. They complained and the League split the area. This was accepted, just. Poland had 50% population, but only 33% land, and half a million Poles were in confirmed. German land. Germany lost 75% of their mines.
Upper Silesia- the German government complained to the League and was awarded the right to import coal at a heavily discounted rate
Upper Silesia - when the coal agreement ended, relations between Poland and Germany worsened drastically.
Economic collapse in Hungary
Mussolini becomes dictator of Italy after his march on Rome
Corfu- Tellini (an Italian General) was murdered in Greece. Mussolini blamed Greece and invaded, killing 15 people. Greece appealed to the League, who condemned Mussolini but told Greece to pay compensationto the League, which would be given upon the killers being found.
Corfu- Mussolini ignores the League and goes to the Conference of Ambassadors (Britain, France, Japan) and persuaded them to undermine them. Greece is forced to apologise, and pay directly. Mussolini pulled out his troops from Corfu.
Bulgaria- Greek soldiers were killed on the border, and Greece invaded. Bulgaria appealed to the League, who condemned Greece, and ordered them to remove their troops and pay compensation. Greece though this was hypocritical based off Mussolini's actions in Corfuu, but obeyed anyway.
The Locarno Treaties- Germany signed a pact saying it officially accepted the borders the Treaty of Versailles set, and agreed to try to settle disputes peacefully
The Fountainebleau Memorandum is released by Lloyd George, who says he is in complete support of the League of Nations.
Germany join the League of Nations
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