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John Dalton outlines his theory of chemical atoms. Dalton's theory of chemical atoms was detailed in his notebook on the 6th of September, which was his birthday.
Humphrey Davy discovered Potassium and sodium by using his newly created process of electrolysis in 1807. Davy was also famous for discovering calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium, and Boron in 1808 and identifying Scheele's "muriatic acid air" as the new element Chlorine in 1810. Davy created a new form of "Davy" lamp utilising a wire gauze that prevents methane from entering the lamp and combusting. Davy was knighted for his services to the empire in 1812.
Amedeo Avogadro discovered equal volumes of gases contained equal numbers of molecules, thereby distinguishing molecules from atoms and proposing the existence of diatomic molecules. The Chemical community later honored Avogadro by naming the number of molecules in 1 mole "Avogadro's number."
Henri Becquerel discovered evidence of radioactivity from a sample of Uranium. Becquerel jointly won the noble prize of 1903 with Marie and Pierre Curie.
Henry Moseley- 1913 he observed the X-ray spectra of elements and found a direct relationship between the wavelengths of the elements spectra and the atomic number of the element (Moseley’s law). Shot and killed at the age of 27 during the Battle of Gallipoli.
Niels Bohr created the Bohr model of the atom based on Rutherford's atomic model and Planck's quantum theory. In the 1930s, Bohr helped refugees from the Nazi regime.
Robert Boyle discovered the relationship between the volume of gases is inversely proportional to the pressure of gases. In his book "New Experiments," Boyle illustrated that air was a material substance with physical and chemical properties. Boyle made a wishlist for inventions of the future which included modern inventions such as painkillers and flight.
Robert Bunsen invented the spectroscope. Robert Bunsen also improved the gas burner for his spectroscopy work. The Bunsen-Kirchhoff award for spectroscopy was named after him and Kirchhoff.
Henry Cavendish discovered Hydrogen. Cavendish was known to be shy and is now theorized to have been on the autism spectrum.
Otto Hahn discovered nuclear fission. Otto Hahn was an active opponent of weaponizing nuclear energy.
Marie Curie discovered radium. Marie Curie and Pierre Curie were famous for their work on radioactivity. Marie Curie was the first woman to win the Noble Prize.
Pierre Curie won a joint Nobel prize with his wife Marie for their research on radioactivity. Pierre was killed in a road accident in Paris.
Charles Martin Hall- 1886 discovered inexpensive way to create aluminum. Lead to the implementation of aluminum into society. He did missionary work in Jamaica for ten years with his wife
Frederic Curie 1935 given a Nobel peace prize for the discovery of artificial radioactivity with his wife Irene Curie. He fought for the French resistance during the German occupation of France
Irene Joliet-Curie- 1935 given Nobel peace prize for the discovery of artificial radioactivity with her husband Frederic. She was an atheist.
Antoine Lavoisier- 1778 Discovered the importance of Oxygen and the role it plays in combustion. He was executed via guillotine during the French Revolution because of his role as a tax collector.
Dimitri Mendeleev- 1865 published his version of the periodic table which provided the basis for the modern periodic table. He was the youngest of 17 siblings
Lise Meitner- 1939 published paper with Otto Hahn laying out their discovery of Nuclear fission of Uranium. First women to become a professor of physics in Germany.
Joseph Priestly- 1774 isolated and discovered “Oxygen” but called it dephlogisticated air. Due to an illness, he developed in his younger years he was left with a stutter for the rest of his life.
Wilhelm Rontgen- 1895 produced and detected electromagnetic radiation (aka X-rays). When he died all of his scientific correspondence was destroyed as per his will.
Ernest Rutherford-1908 received Nobel prize for his work with radioactivity and more specifically the discovery of the radioactive half-life. He died because of complications due to a small hernia he neglected to have examined.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele- 1770 reaction between saltpeter and acetic acid resulted in the creation of oxygen. Made many discoveries credited to other scientist found on this list such as oxygen and a list of elements whose discoveries are credited to other researchers.
Glen Seaborg- 1951 awarded a Nobel prize for his hand in the discovery of trans uranium elements. The attendants at Seaborg’s marriage consisted of a store clerk and a janitor.
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