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Environment and Gender: The Conversation Timeline
12 Nov 2017
Silent Spring - an environmental science book by Rachel Carson. Documented the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. Beginning of environmental conversation.
BP appoints first black female CEO https://www.enca.com/money/bp-appoints-first-black-woman-ceo What does this mean??
Integral Ecofeminism: An Introduction by Chandra Alexandre "...the oppression of women is inextricably linked to the domination of nature" "interconnected with all life:" "...dedicated to eliminating biases based upon race, gender, sexual orientation, age, species and other categorical distinctions"
"...lead by example...speak out clearly but without malice against those who further policies of injustice and ecological ignorance..." "...live by allowing our strengths to emerge from our greatest vulnerabilities" "...recognize suffering of those who have been marginalized and abused" "All-in-One, One-in-All; keep the universe diverse and alive, diversity = survival"
Ecofeminism and System Change by Terran Giacomini "peaceful community relations" "the exploitation of women and nature is central to capitalism" "horizontal relations: this is like this" "extractivism as a form of violence toward women, children, and nature" "extractivism as rape culture and a continuation of colonization"
"global warming cannot be addressed without also challenging the social relations that underpin ecocide" "seek grassroots democracy" "protect the forest, their cultures, and the health and well-being of all future generations" "the commodification and genetic modification of seeds harms small scale farmer, peasant and Indigenous women: cost, loss of control, chemicals used are "probably carcinogenic" (World Health Organization) "housewifeization" "Shift in power from the 1% to the 99%
Ecofeminism Revisited: Rejecting Essentialism and Re-Placing Species in a Material Feminist Environmentalism by Greta Gaard
Ecofeminist Origins (the 1980s) Linking oppressions of gender, ecology, race: -Susan Griffin's Woman and Nature -Carolyn Merchant's The Death of Nature -Mary Daly's Gyn/Ecology -Marjorie Spiegel's The Dreaded Comparison (parallels enslavement of nonhuman animals to African Americans in the US) -Collard and Joyce Contrucci's Rape of the Wild Things are legitimated and normalized through religion, culture, and language
"Women for Life on Earth" - an encampment of women who pressured the Royal Air Force to cease operating and testing nuclear cruise missiles "fear for the future of all our children and for the future of the living world which is the basis of all life"
Feminist actions in the breast cancer movement linked breast cancers with environmental toxins like endocrine disruptors emitted by the same chemical corporations that funded the "pink ribbon" walks for breast caner research - https://www.bcaction.org/our-take-on-breast-cancer/environment/ - https://silentspring.org/research-update/exposure-environmental-chemicals-important-risk-factor-breast-cancer
"ecofeminisms" denied: Nearly all articles rejected on grounds of being opinionated and not having clear ties to women's oppression But, in 1993, Paula DiPerna successfully published 2 articles while simultaneously revealing limitations of her knowledge
Evolved terms: ecological feminism feminist environmentalism material feminist environmentalism
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