Nicaragua Political Timeline
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Chile Political Timeline
1821: Mexican Independence: Nicaragua first won its independence as part of the Mexican Empire
1838: Nicaragua becomes a sovereign state
1855: US and Britain sign Clayton-Bulwar treaty to establish trans-oceanic transit route w/o Nicaragua permission
1855: The liberal Leon party hires American William Walker to attack conservative Grenada party. Liberals win.
1860: Walker is executed by Nicaraguans and the British after he tries to white-wash Nicaragua and became a symbol of US imperialism to Britain
1893: Jose Santos Zelaya liberal revolution begins liberal movement. This alarmed the U.S.
1909: U.S. forces Zelaya into resignation, which sparked anti-interventionist sentiment
1909: Augusto Sandino, a radical liberal general joins liberal movement
1934: Sandino is killed, guerilla is disbanded by National Guard's "liberal" Antonio Somoza. Somozo creates U.S. sponsored dictatorship
1950: Nicaragua becomes fully dependent producer of primary goods on U.S. and a U.S. symbol of control in LA. Conservative party is only opposition
1956: Nicaraguan poet assassinates Somoza. Creates destabilization. Somoza's son takes power
1944: Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) is formed Marxist, Fronseca was a member
1961: The Sandinista National Liberation Front is created under the leadership of Carlos Foncesa/ Guerilla warfare begins
1967: FSLN fails to mobilize local population an fails in attack. They regroup and start pandering to campesinos
1970: Progressive Christian groups emerge to oppose Somoza. Creating a unique marxist and christian opposition
1972: Earthquake kills 10,000 in Managua. Somoza does not help, keeps all money to himself subsequently loses all support-even among business elites.
1974: FSLN holds Somoza elites hostage in return for political prison release Somoza imposes Martial law, thousands are tortured. Church stops supporting him too.
1979: Somoza flees contry and then is assassinated after bombing citizens. Sandinistas/FSLN take power and form government dominatd by them and other oppositio movements
1984: Sandinistas hold fair elctions (rare) representative democracy works
1990: Sandinistas lose election and peacefully hand over power to Violeta Chamorro's conservative National Opposition Unuon (UNO). Marked return of elite decision making. unemployment rose, became a conservative neoliberal movement
1996 Elections: Conservative Aleman wins creates liberal alliance. FSLN Daniel Ortega comes in 2nd,. Aleman is known for corruption.
2001: Elections. Ortega aligns himself with Aleman which turns out to bad. He loses to liberal alliance candidate Bolanos.
2004: Liberal Alliance splinters, Sandinists sweep municpal elections, Aleman is persected and sent to prison
2006 elections: Ortega wins after alignment with catholic church.
2007: Nicaragua receives $600 million from Venezuela and Bolivia
1980: women's rights make numerous gains- maternity leave, equal access to education, divorce, sex ed. Abortion legalized
2006: Abortion banned
1980: 55% of workers are unionized
2018: In April 2018, demonstrations opposed a decree increasing taxes and reducing benefits in the country's pension system. Local independent press organizations had documented at least 19 dead and over 100 missing in the ensuing conflict
1927-1933: First Sandinista War US makes deal with Nicaraguan govt to stop conflict. Everybody but Sandino agrees. Sandino takes oppressed groups (peasents, natives) to the mountains to begin a guerilla war. Successful at first which was surprising
1979-1984: Council of state created as legislative authority. Majoriy was pro-FSLN with some other representation. FSLN had trade unions, land regorm, women's rights etc. Joined Non-aligned movement and created opposition from former elites and US
1981-1982: U.S launches Contra War against Nicaragua. Reagan makes it a priority to remove Sandinistas, Sandinistas defeat them but at great cost. Conflict extends beyond just the war
2007-2012: Nicaragua receives over 1.5 billion in renewable energy
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