September 30, 2021
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 5 Dec 2018 ⟶
List of edits
DNA of human embryos edited for the first time. Location: Sun Yat-sen University, China Method: CRISPR-Cas9 Journal: Protein & Cell Type of embryo: non-viable human Disease treated: Beta thalassemia Results: 11 of the 86 embryos injected with CRISPR-Cas9 had the faulty gene replaced
Permission to edit the DNA of human embryos was granted for the first time in the U.K. by the HFEA. Location: Francis Crick Institute, U.K. Method: CRISPR-Cas9 Journal: Nature Outline: the gene Oct4, known to be highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, was inactivated in order to research early embryo development.
DNA of human embryos edited for the second time Location: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China Method: CRISPR-Cas9 Journal: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Type of embryo: non-viable human Outline: a gene which confers resistance to HIV was inserted into embryos Results: No off-target effects found (of the 28 sites examined). 46 embryos were injected with the CRISPR system. 26 embryos survived to the 8-cell stage, and only 4 successfully had the gene inserted.
DNA of viable human embryos edited for the first time Location: U.S. Method: CRISPR-Cas9 Journal: Nature Type of embryo: Viable human Disease treated: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Results: No off-target effects found. One embryo had all of its cells successfully modified, two were mosaics, and the other 3 embryos were found not edited at all.
First time a base editor is used to edit DNA of embryos Location: Sun Yat-Sen University, China Method: Base editor Journal: Protein & Cell Type of embryo: Disease treated: beta thalassemia Results: Efficiency was 7-25.9%. Most of the edited embryos were mosaics, with percentage of repaired cells being 20-75%. No off-target effects were found, but only the “top 10 potential off-target sites” were analysed, so there could have been unintended edits in the unexamined parts of the genome.
CRISPR-Cas9 used for the first time in eukaryotic cells Location: Broad Institute, U.S. Journal: Science
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