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Politicians and generals went to war to increase their power even as a political order broke down in Rome. There were politically inspired riots to restore the power of the tribunes.
Caesar conquered all of Gaul an area that is today the country of France. He wrote about this conquest in great detail.
Pompey's allies in the senate ordered Caesar to give up command of his army. They wanted Pompey to rule Rome alone. Caesar refused. Instead he led his troops back toward Rome for a confrontation.
Caesar's army finally defeated Pompey in Greece. Pompey was killed by orders of an Egyptian king.
Caesar returned to Rome, he made himself dictator for life. Although Caesar worked to improve Roman society, many people resented the the way he gained power.
The senators were especially angry with Caesar. He had reduced their power, and they feared his growing strength. On a day known as Ides a group of senators stabbed Caesar to death.
Octavian and Antony wanted to punish the men who killed Caesar. His killers were forced to flee for their lives. Rome was shocked by Caesars murder. Riots broke out after his death. In 42 BC Antony and Octavian soundly defeated their opponents.
After the battle of Philippi, Octavian returned to Italy. Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia
Eight years later Antony divorced Octavian's sister to marry Cleopatra of Egypt. Octavian was very angry and set out a fleet to find him.
Octavian sent a fleet to attack Antony, Antony sailed out to meet it, which was the battle of Actium. Antony was defeated.
Octavian announced that he was giving up his power to the senate, but, in reality he kept all of his power
Octavian became Rome's sole ruler
The senate gave Octavian a new name , Augustus.
Octavian who is now Augustus ended the roman republic and started the roman empire
The Romans had taken much over Gaul and much of central Europe. Under the emperor Claudius, the Romans conquered most of Britain. Rime also controlled Asia minor, Mesopotamia, and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean.
A doctor named Galen, who lived in the 100's AD. He was a Greek surgeon who studied the body. Doctors now base there teaching off of Galen's research.
The first 200 years of the roman empire was a time of peace and prosperity. Stable government and a well run army helped Rome grow wealthy. We call this the Pax Romana
By the end of the 200's, emperors had given up some of the land the roman empire army had conquered, These emperors feared that the roman empire had become to large.
Diocletian became emperor in the late 200's. convinced that the empire was to big for one person to rule, Diocletian ruled the eastern half and named co-emperor to rule the west.
Most countries in Europe today have civil law traditions. In the 1500's and 1600's, colonists from some of these countries carried civil law around the world. As a result, many countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas have legal systems influenced by roman law.
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