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31 Oct 2017
30 Oct 2017
After defeating Sweden, Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria. Tsar Peter I (later known as Peter the Great) is proclaimed as the first Emperor of all Russia
The First Partition of Poland sees almost a third of Poland divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia. The full partition of Poland was completed by 1795.
The Russian American Company is founded, and begins constructing settlements in North America, particularly in Alaska and California
The Finnish War concludes, and Sweden cedes Finland to the Russian Empire.
Under the leadership of Napoleon, France invades Russia in June. After reaching Moscow, French forces are pushed back and defeated by the end of the year.
The Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 concludes. Defeated Turkey cedes the Eastern Black Sea shore to Russia, plus territory at the mouth of the river Danube.
Polish November uprising is defeated.
Russia fights France and the British Empire in the Crimean War. Russia is defeated, and loses control of its Danube territory. Defeat leads to domestic reform, including Alexander II’s 1861 emancipation of the serfs.
Treaty of Aigun signed. Border between China and Russia is fixed at the Amur River
Convention of Peking grants control of Ussuri krai to Russia.
A Russian military expedition gains control over much of Central Asia. The city of Tashkent is captured in 1865, and the Guberniya of Turkestan is established in 1867.
Alaska is sold to the United States for $7.2 million, reducing the size of the Russian empire by 1.5 million square kilometers
Burkhara and Khiva become Russian protectorates
Russia defeats the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War. Although Russia sees some territorial gains in the Caucasus, the war weakens Russia’s main South-Western rival.
Russification of Finland begins, reducing Finnish autonomy, and Russian is declared the official language of Finland. The policy meets resistance and weakens Russian control over the territory.
Japan unexpectedly defeats Russian in the Russo-Japanese War. Russia is forced to cede part of the Sakhalin Islands, and control over Port Arthur in China.
Nicholas II signs the October Manifesto, following widespread protests during what became known as the 1905 Revolution.
The First World War begins. Despite initial successes, Russia begins to suffer increasingly heavy defeats to the German military
The Russian Revolution. Tsar Nicholas II abdicates in the February 1917 Revolution. The Russian Provisional Government (which itself falls to the Bolsheviks in the second Russian Revolution in October 1917) declares Russia a republic and the Russian Empire no longer formally exists.
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