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Divya - October 26 2017 HOTA Timeline
27 Oct 2017
1820: The Spanish Army, supported by liberals, overthrows the absolute monarchy and makes Spain a constitutional monarchy in a modernizing revolution
1821: Absolute monarchy is restored to Spain by French forces in an attempt to reinstate the old order
1833: In an attempt to prevent a female succession following the death of King Ferdinand, there is a revolt by ‘Carlists’. The army intervenes to defeat the Carlists, who nevertheless remain a strong conservative force in Spanish politics (see Interesting Facts box
1871 The army restores a constitutional monarchy
1931 The King abdicates and the Second Republic is established
De Rivera : 1931 (Apr) Second Spanish Republic proclaimed
1933 (Nov) Spanish right wins general election
1934 (Oct) Asturias rising
1936 (Feb) Popular Front government elected
1936 ( July) Army rising
1936 (Jul) Franco’s forces airlifted from Morocco to southern Spain
1936 (Aug) Britain and France begin policy of non-intervention
1936 - 4 Sep Largo Caballerro forms new Republican government
1936 - 13 Sep San Sebastián taken by Nationalists
1936 (Oct) Republic incorporates militias into new Popular Army
1936 (1 Oct) Franco becomes head of Nationalist government and supreme military commander
1936 - 29 Oct Soviet intervention begins; German and Italian planes bomb Madrid
1936 - 6 Nov Republican government leaves Madrid for Valencia
1936 - 23 Nov Nationalists abandon attempt to take Madrid
1937 (Feb) Nationalist offensive to cut the links between Madrid and Valencia fails at the battle of Jarama. Russian tanks and planes play a crucial role in the battle
1937 - 8 Feb Fall of Málaga to the Nationalists
1937 (March) Nationalist offensive to tighten the pressure on Madrid from the north fails at the battle of Guadalajara. This was a major defeat for the Italian Army, and again Soviet equipment was vital to Republican success
1937 (Apr) Franco unites Carlists, fascists and monarchists into one movement
1937 26 Apr German Condor Legion bombs and destroys Guernica
1937 15 May Fall of Largo Caballero
1937 - 17 May Juan Negrin forms new government
1937 - 19 Jun Fall of Bilbao to the Nationalists; end of Basque independence
1937- Jul Republican offensive to break the siege of Madrid to the west fails at Brunete
1937- Aug Republican offensive to break out from Madrid to the north-east fails at Belchite
1937- (Dec) Newly organized Republican Popular Army captures Teruel in central Spain.
1938 (Feb) Nationalists retake Teruel and launch the strategically crucial advance to the Mediterranean to cut Catalonia off from the rest of Republican Spain
1938 - (Apr) Nationalists reach the Mediterranean at Vinaroz. Republican Spain cut in two
1938- (Jul) Republican offensive on the River Ebro fails
1938- Nov Nationalists drive Republicans back across River Ebro. Nationalists march on Barcelona
1939 (Feb) Barcelona falls to Nationalists
1939 (28 Mar) Nationalists enter Madrid
1939 (1 Apr) Franco announces end of war.
The Partido Socialista Obrero Español - Largo Caballero
Carlists - General Francisco Franco
Union General de Trabajadores (UGT)- 1888
Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo (CNT)- 1910
Led by Jose Maria Gil-Robles: Confederacion Espanola de Derechas Autonomas (CEDA)- 1933
Managed by Franco - Falange Española Tradicionalista (FET)- 1937
1927 - Federacion Anarquista Iberica (FAI)
1833–69 The army’s influence in national politics increases during the ‘rule of the Queens’
1869–70 Anarchist revolts take place against the state
1870–71 The monarchy is overthrown and the First Republic is established
1875–1918 - During this period the constitutional monarchy allows for democratic elections. The system is corrupt, however. Power remains in the hands of the wealthy oligarchs or ‘caciques’ Spanish nationalism suffers when Spain is defeated in 1898 in a war with the USA
1914–18 Spain remains neutral during World War I and experiences economic growth
1918–23 :The economy falters and 12 different governments fail to redress the crisis. The regime reaches new lows in 1921, when the army, sent to crush a revolt led by Abd-el-Krim in Spanish Morocco, is massacred by Moors
1923–30 General Primo de Rivera takes control in a bloodless coup and rules for seven years, thus fatally undermining the legitimacy of the monarchy
1937- Sep–Oct Nationalists captured rest of northern Spain
The Right Republic- (November 1933–February 1936
The Left Republic (April 1931–November 1933)
The Popular Front - (February–July 1936)
King Ferdinand - king of Spain in 1808 and from 1814 to 1833. Between 1808 and 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars, Ferdinand was imprisoned in France by Napoleon.
1880-1940 Manuel Azaña Díaz was the second Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and later served again as Prime Minister, and then as the second and last President of the Republic. The Spanish Civil War broke out while he was President.
1886-1931 : Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year.
1893-1936 José Calvo Sotelo was a Spanish politician, minister of Finance during the Dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and a leading figure of the anti-republican radical right during the Second Republic
1872- 1936General José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquis of the Rif, was a General in the Spanish Army who was one of the chief conspirators in the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War
1887-1937 : Emilio Mola : 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War. He was a veteran of the African wars where he rose to prominence serving with the Regulars.
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra, 1st Marquis of Queipo de Llano was a Spanish military leader who rose to prominence during Francisco Franco's coup d'état and the subsequent Spanish Civil War and Spanish White Terror.
1892 - 1956: Juan Negrin:a Spanish politician and physician. He was a leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and served as finance minister
1451 -1504 Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles I.
1833-1962 - Indalecio Prieto Tuero was a Spanish politician, a minister and one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic
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