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Begining of Timeline Key: Green: England Light Blue: France Red: Spain Yellow: Sweden Purple: Netherlands Dark Blue: Prussia Orange: Austria White: Russia Black: Infomation about timeline
End of Timeline
Henry VIII declares himself the head of the Church of England
The Pilgrimage of grace takes place
Anne Boleyn is beheaded
Henry marries Jane Seymour
Henry divorces Catherine of Aragon. He marries Anne Boleyn.
Henry VIII begins closing the monasteries
Henry VIII finishes closes the monasteries
1537 Jane Seymour dies
Henry marries Anne of Cleves but quickly divorces her
Henry marries Kathryn Howard
The battle of Solway Moss. The English defeat the Scots.
Kathryn Howard is beheaded.
Henry marries Catherine Parr
Henry VIII dies. Edward VI becomes king
The first Book of Common Prayer is introduced.
Edward VI dies. Mary becomes queen
Lady Jane Grey is beheaded
1555-1558: Queen Mary persecutes Protestants. Nearly 300 people are burned to death for heresy.
1558 Queen Mary dies. Elizabeth I becomes queen.
1560 to 1640: 'The Great Rebuilding' takes place in England. Stone and brick replace most wooden houses. Chimneys and glass windows become common.
The Pope excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I
1577-1580 Francis Drake sails around the world
The Throckmorton Plot, a Catholic plot to murder Queen Elizabeth is foiled
The Babington Plot, another Catholic plot to murder the Queen is foiled
Mary Queen of Scots is beheaded
The Spanish Armada is defeated
The East India Company is founded
The Poor Law is passed. People are made to pay a rate to support the poor.
Queen Elizabeth dies. James I becomes king.
The gunpowder plot, a Catholic conspiracy to blow up parliament, is discovered.
Jamestown, the first successful British colony in North America, is founded
The King James Bible is published
James I dies. Charles I becomes king , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
William Harvey publishes his discovery of the circulation of the blood
The Petition of Right is presented to the king by parliament
1629-1640 The Eleven Years Tyranny. Charles I rules without parliament.
MP's draw up a list of grievances called the Grand Remonstrance.
The English Civil War between king and parliament begins. They fight the indecisive battle of Edgehill.
Parliament wins the battle of Marston Moor
Parliament wins the battle of Naseby
Charles I surrenders to the Scots and the first civil war comes to an end
Charles I starts another civil war. The Scots intervene on his behalf. However the battle of Preston ends hopes of restoring Charles I to power.
Pride's Purge. Thomas Pride removes some Presbyterian MPs from parliament.
King Charles I is beheaded
A Scottish army invades England in an attempt to put Charles II on the throne. The Scots are defeated at Worcester and Charles flees abroad.
Thomas Hobbes publishes his work Leviathan
Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England
1655-1657 Rule of the Major-Generals in England
Oliver Cromwell dies. His son Richard takes over.
Richard Cromwell resigns. His fall from power is so swift he becomes known as 'Tumbledown Dick'.
Charles II becomes king
Robert Boyle publishes his great work The Sceptical Chemist
The Royal Society (a scientific organisation) is given its charter by Charles II
The Act of Uniformity is passed
Plague kills many people in London. This is the last outbreak of bubonic plague in England.
The Great Fire of London. Much of the city is destroyed but it is soon rebuilt.
The Test Act is passed. Catholics and Protestant dissenters (who do not belong to the Church of England) are prevented from holding public office.
The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford is founded
The Act of Habeas Corpus. Imprisonment without trial is outlawed.
Charles II dies. James II (a Roman Catholic) becomes king.
Isaac Newton publishes his great work Principia Mathematica. He lays the foundations of modern physics.
The 'Glorious, Bloodless Revolution'. James II flees abroad and William and Mary become the new monarchs.
The Bill of Rights is passed
Queen Mary dies of smallpox aged 32
The Bank of England is founded
Thomas Savery invents the first steam engine
The Act of Settlement is passed. It states that Catholics or anyone married to a Catholic cannot succeed to the throne.
William dies. Anne becomes queen.
Gibraltar is captured
The Act of Union joins England and Scotland
St Pauls Cathedral is finished
End of Timeline
Queen Anne dies. George I becomes king.
George I dies. George II becomes king.
Isaac Newton dies
Robert Walpole becomes the king's main minister. People call him the Prime Minister. (Originally it was a term of abuse).
English Queen Mary I of England married Spanish Prince Philip.
Charles abdicated in favor of Philip, who became King Philip II of Spain.
Philip moved his court to Madrid.
Dutch Revolt: A revolt began against Hapsburg control of the Netherlands.
The Iberian Union of the crowns of Aragon, Castile and Portugal was established.
Anglo–Spanish War (1585): The war began.
Philip III of Spain was crowned.
Anglo-Spanish War (1585): The war ended.
The Treaty of London (1604) was signed
The Expulsion of the Moriscos began.
Thirty Years' War: The war began.
Philip IV of Spain was crowned.
Portuguese Restoration War: The war began.
The Iberian Union was dissolved.
The Treaty of Westphalia was signed.
The Peace of the Pyrenees was signed.
Philip IV died.
The Treaty of Lisbon was signed
Charles II of Spain was crowned
Charles II died.
War of the Spanish Succession: The war began.
Charles I 1516–56
Philip II 1556–98
Philip III 1598–1621
Philip IV 1621–65 , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Charles II 1665–1700 , , , , , , , , , ,
Philip V 1700–24 , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Philip V (2nd time) 1724–46
1579—1584 William of Orange
1584—1625 Maurice of Nassau
1625—1647 Frederick Henry , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
1647—1650 William II , , , , , , , , , ,
1672—1702 William III (also King of England) , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
1482 to 1567 The Habsburg Period when the region was ruled by the Habsburg Empire.
The Amsterdam attic church, later known as the Museum Amstelkring, was built after the monarchy banned the public practice of Catholicism.
1664-1667 The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War
King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II.
States of Holland put a death penalty on "sodomy."
"Women's Revolt" in Amsterdam
Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands
1568-1648 The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch Revolt was the secession war in which the proto- Netherlands first became an independent country
The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern, Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the Catholics. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, marking the beginning of the Dutch Republic.
States of Utrecht outlawed Catholic worship.
The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
William of Orange was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer assassin due to William’s reluctance take a public stand on religious issues.
he Dutch East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted "The Mocking of Christ." , , , , , , , , , , ,
Dutch West Indies Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
1634-1637 The Dutch tulip craze was known as the "tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end.
University of Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster
War broke out between the Netherlands and England.
Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.
1562-98: The Wars of Religion
1547-59: Reign of Henry II
Massacre of Protestants on St. Bartholomew's Eve in Paris
1589-1593: Henri IV becomes 1st Bourbon King and converts to Catholicism along with issuing the edict of Nantes to end the wars of religion.
Louis XIII crowned at the age of 17
Cardinal Richelieu becomes principal minister , , , , , , , , , , , ,
1643-1715: Louis XIV becomes king with Mazarin as principal minister , , , , , , , , , , ,
Royal court moves to Versailles
Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV dies and Louis XV accedes
Francis I issued an edict incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.
Francis I died. He was succeeded by his son Henry II.
Henry II ends the Italian Wars by signing the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis and renouncing all his Italian claims.
Henry II died. He was succeeded by his son Francis II.
Francis II died. With no heir, he was succeeded by his brother Charles IX.
Charles IX died. With no heir, he was succeeded by his brother Henry III.
King Henry IV died, by assassination Francois Ravaillac. He was succeeded by his eldest son Louis XIII
Franco-Spanish War: Victorious France signs the Treaty of the Pyrenees with Spain and annexes northern Catalonia and French Flanders.
War of the Spanish Succession: France and England signed the Treaty of Utrecht, under which Philip V of Spain renounced for himself and his descendants any right to the French throne. Similarly, possible heirs to the French crown renounced all rights to the rulership of Spain.
Louis XV Became the new King of France.
Gustav I 1523-1560
Eric XIV 1560-1568
John III 1568–1592
Charles IX 1604–1611
Gustavus Adolphus the Great 1611–1632
Christina 1632–1654 , , , , , , , , ,
Charles X Gustav 1654–1660 , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Charles XI 1660–1697
Charles XII 1697–1718
Ulrica Eleanor 1718–1720
The first full Swedish translation of the Bible, the Gustav Vasa Bible, is published.
Border skirmishes between Sweden and Russia lead to the outbreak of the Russo-Swedish War (1554-1557).
Estonia becomes a Swedish dominion.
The city of Karlstad is founded.
Poland and Sweden enter into a short-lived personal union
A conflict between Duke Charles, later King Charles IX, and Sigismund, King of Sweden and Poland, leads to the outbreak of the War against Sigismund.
The War against Sigismund ends, resulting in the deposition of King Sigismund.
The Linköping Bloodbath takes place.
The Ingrian War between Russia and Sweden begins.
Denmark declares war on Sweden, initiating the Kalmar War.
Denmark declares war on Sweden, initiating the Kalmar War.
The city of Kristianstad is founded.
The Treaty of Stolbovo is signed, ending the Ingrian War.
The city of Gothenburg is founded.
Sweden enters the Thirty Years' War.
The Thirty Years' War ends, with Sweden among the winners.
Queen Christina abdicates her throne and converts to Roman Catholicism, creating a major scandal.
Lund University is founded.
Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank is founded.
Sweden invades Brandenburg, triggering the Swedish-Brandenburg War.
An alliance consisting of Denmark-Norway, Saxony, Poland and Russia declares war on Sweden, initiating the Great Northern War.
The Treaty of Altranstädt is signed, following Sweden's victorious invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Poltava takes place. The Swedish army under Charles XII is destroyed by the Russian forces of Peter the Great, marking the beginning of Sweden's decline as a Great Power.
The Treaties of Stockholm are signed, requiring Sweden to cede parts of Swedish Pomerania to Prussia
The Treaty of Frederiksborg is signed, requiring Sweden to cede Schleswig to Denmark-Norway.
The Treaty of Nystad is signed, requiring Sweden to cede Estonia, Livonia and Ingria to Russia
Albert 1525-1568 Note: Until 1701 Prussia was a mere Duchy and not a full fledged nation and so all leaders until 1701 are not Kings.
Albert Fredrick 1568-1618
John Sigismund 1618-1619 , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
George William 1619-1640
Frederick William 1620-1688 , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Frederick I 1688-1701 , , , , , , , ,, , ,
Frederick I the Mercenary King (1701-1713) , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Frederick William I 1713-1740
Frederick I of Prussia crowned himself king; the Duchy of Prussia became the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg.
Prussian Duke Frederick Wilhelm withdrew ties with Lithuania and Poland and acknowledged vassal status with Sweden.
Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
Frederick William I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great. In exchange he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence
Frederick William abolished serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
Friedrich von Steuben, Prussian and US inspector-general of Washington's army, was born.
The Russian capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg.
Government reform of Peter I: Peter established collegia, government ministries that superseded the prikazy.
Great Northern War: The Treaty of Nystad ended the war. Sweden ceded Estonia, Livonia and Ingria to Russia.
Catherine established an advisory body, the Supreme Privy Council.
Catherine established the Belgorod and Novgorod Governorates and adjusted the borders of several others. Districts were abolished; uyezds were reestablished.
The Supreme Privy Council offered the throne to Anna Ivanovna, the daughter of Ivan V, on the conditions that the Council retain the powers of war and peace and taxation, among others, and that she never marry or appoint an heir.
Anna tore up the terms of her accession and dissolved the Supreme Privy Council.
Ferdinand I 1521–1564
Maximilian II 1564–1576
Rudolf V 1576–1608
Albert VII 1619
Ferdinand III 1619–1637 , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Ferdinand IV 1637–1657 , , , , , , , , , , , . ,
Leopold VI 1657/1665–1705 , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Joseph I 1705–1711
Charles III 1711–1740
1500's The Ottoman Empire invade Austria
1600's The Ottomans are defeated and driven out of the Austrian region
The Protestants in Bohemia revolt against the Catholic Habsburg emperor starting the Thirty Years War
The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and the Habsburgs declared Roman Catholicism as the official Austrian religion
The Habsburg King of Spain dies
1701-1714 The War of Spanish Succession started between Austria and France Austria wins Belgium and Spain's lands in Italy
Pope Paul IV refused to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.
Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed.
Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
The Treaty of Karlowitz ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
England, Austria, and the Netherlands formed an Alliance against France.
Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
Vasily III 1505-1533
Ivan IV 1547-1584
Feodor I 1584-1598
Boris I 1598-1605
Feodor II (1605)
False Dmitry I 1605-1606
False Dmitry II 1607-1610
Representatives of 50 cities and some peasants unanimously elected Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov as the new Czar. From here began the Romanov dynasty that ruled Russia till 1917.
1613-1645 Czar Mikhail Feodorovich
1645-1676 Czar Alexei Mikhailovich
1676-1682 Czar Feodor Alexeevich
1682-1696 Czar Ivan V (joint ruler with Peter I, the Great) , , , , , , , , , , ,
1696-1725 Czar Peter I, the Great, Emperor of All Russia Note: from now on all Czars have the title of Emperor/Empress of all Russia after their name , , , , , , , , ,
1725-1727 Catherine I, Empress of All Russia , , , , , , , , , , ,
1727-1730 Peter II, Emperor of All Russia
1730-1740 Anna Ivanovna, Empress of All Russia
First book printed in Russia, the Narrow-typed Gospel Book.
Ivan established the Oprichnina, a Muscovite territory ruled directly by the tsar.
The Union of Lublin was signed. Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were merged into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; Poland began aiding Lithuania in its war against Muscovy.
The Oprichnina was abolished.
Ivan killed his oldest son.
Russo-Swedish War 1590–1595: The Treaty of Plussa expired. Muscovite troops laid siege to Narva.
The Treaty of Tyavzino was signed ending the Russo-Swedish war
Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): Muscovite populace rising against the Poles recaptured the Kremlin.
Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): The Truce of Deulino ended the war.
Salt Riot: Upset over the introduction of a salt tax, the townspeople launched a rebellion in Moscow.
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Muscovite army invaded Poland.
Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): Muscovite reserves invaded Ingria.
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Treaty of Andrusovo ended the war between the Commonwealth and Muscovy without Cossack representation. Poland agreed to cede the Smoleńsk and Czernihów Voivodships and acknowledged Muscovite control over the Left- bank Ukraine.
Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): The Treaty of Valiesar established a peace. The conquered Ingrian territories were ceded to Muscovy for three years.
Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)
Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681): The war ended with the Treaty of Bakhchisarai. The Russo- Turkish border was settled at the Dnieper River.
Great Northern War: Muscovy declared war on Sweden.
Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Charles XII of Sweden persuaded the Ottoman sultan to declare war on Russia.
Government reform of Peter I: Peter established the Governing Senate to pass laws in his absence.
Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Peace was concluded with the Treaty of the Pruth. Russia returned Azov to the Ottoman Empire and demolished the town of Taganrog.
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