June 15, 2023
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 1 Nov 2018 ⟶
List of edits
14 Nov 2018
History of chemistry
first recorded evidence of the manufacture of soap-like materials in Ancient Babylon
Mostly used in textiles
discovered the basic method of making soap (fats boiled with ashes and water)
Mentioned in the Ebers papyrus in Egypt
animal and vegetable oils were mixed with alkaline salts to produce a soap-like substance
used for threatening sores, skin diseases as well as washing.
Appeared in Greece when famous physician Galen recommended using it
said that it was a preventive measure for skin diseases.
Soap became popular in Roman Empire
Soap factory found in ruins of Pompeii
Roughly around this time Ancient Germans and the Gauls started using soap
They used it to decorate their hair
They mixed ashes with animal fat to produce soap
Arabic chemists started producing soap in Nablus, Kufa and Basra.
They were the first one to produce soaps made from vegetable oils (such as olive oil), aromatic oils (such as thyme oil) and lye.
They made perfumed and colored soap, some of the soaps were liquid and others were solid. They also made special soap for shaving.
Marseilles, France and Savona, Italy became soap making centers
Soap making became well-known in Italy and Spain
They made it using goat fat and Beech tree ashes.
French started also producing soap
They were using olive oil
Europeans started using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) instead of animal fats
Finer soaps started appearing in Europe
Nicholas Leblanc patented a method of making sodium carbonate or soda ash
That was done by using commonly available salt
Michael Chevreul discovered the relationship and chemical nature of fatty acids, glycerin, and fats.
Andrew Pears began manufacturing a high-quality, transparent soap in London
William Gossage manufactured low-price good-quality soap
Robert Spear Hudson started producing a soap powder
This was another breakthrough in soap making chemistry.
Germans developed synthetic detergents
I was responsible for making the first, hard, white bars of olive oil soap.
A well known soaping center was in The Castille region of Spain
Castille soap is still known today as soap made with almost all olive oil.
Commercial soap, as we know it today, came into existence
Industrially manufactured bar soaps became available. This happened due to the discovery made by the 2 French chemists
a method called batch kettle boiling was used for soap production.
The continuous process that decreased soap making production time to less than a day was introduced and refined by Procter & Gamble.
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