⟶ Updated 7 months ago ⟶
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Jerusalem Becomes The Capital Under King David
The North of Israel Is Captured by Assyria
Return To Zion Under Cyrus
Alexander The Great
Hasmonean Revolt against the Greek Empire
Siege Of Jerusalem
The Exodus From Egpyt
Hebrews fled from the famine in Canaan and entered Egypt, as the population of Hebrews in Egypt grew, the pharaoh got more upset fearing an uprising, so he had enslaved them. After many plagues, Pharaoh finally lets Moses's people go and the Israelite leave Egypt.
King David captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites and established the capital of his kingdom there. The city remained as the capital of the kingdom for 400 years, until its first destruction at the hands of the Babylonians in 586/7 BCE. This era is known as the First Temple period.
Israel continued to exist within the reduced territory as an independent kingdom until around 720 BCE, when it was again invaded by Assyria and the rest of the population deported. The Bible relates that the population of Israel was exiled, becoming known as the Ten Lost Tribes
The Jews in Babylon were allowed to return to the Land of Israel,due to Cyrus's decree. Initially, around 50,000 Jews made aliyah to the land of Israel following the decree of Cyrus as described in Ezra, whereas most remained in Babylon. Later, an unknown number of exiles returned from Babylon with Ezra himself. The return of the deportees to Judah during the next 110 years is known as the return to Zion, an event that Jews ever since have been inspired by.
After two centuries of serving as a vassal state to Persia, Judah suddenly found itself the vassal state of Macedonia, a Greek state. Alexander the Great had conquered Persia and had, in doing so, conquered most of the world. For most of the world belonged to Persia; in a blink of an eye, it now fell to the Greeks.
Antiochus IV issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods.
The Roman Empire, lead by future Emperor Titus, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been controlled by Judean rebel factions since 66 CE, The siege ended on August 30th, 70 AD with the burning and destruction of the second temple.
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