September 30, 2021
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Cold War : Korean War
Lai Shu Xian
⟶ Updated 22 Oct 2018 ⟶
List of edits
Defeat of Japan
Stalin agreed that once Japan was defeated, there should be a trusteeship between superpowers.
Britain, US and Nationalist China promised to form a free, independent Korea.
US proposed an initial division of Korea peninsular at the 38th parallel.
Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers
Both US and USSR ignored Korea claims to gain indep. Both agreed to advise Korea to form a democratic govt.
Election in North and South Korea
Interference of United Nations General Assembly, UN were not allowed to enter North Korea
Formation of DPRK and ROK
Kim Il Sung met Stalin complaining about South Koreans.
Stalin urged Kim to "strike the southerners in the teeth"
Withdrawal of Soviet troops from North Korea
Soviet continued to supply North Korea with ammunition and weapon supplies, far more generously than it supplied to CCP.
Withdrawal of US troops from South Korea
Agreed by Truman and Acheson as they believed stationing troops in South Korea is a wasteful expense.
Kim sent well-equipped guerrilla groups across the frontiers to establish bases.
Guerilla operations failed, Kim believed that major invasion is needed.
Stalin was cautious, making final approval of North Koreans attack dependent on Mao.
Kim talks with Mao. Mao gave consent on North Korean attack as China thinks US would not intervene, and was persuaded that USSR was enthusiastic.
Outbreak of Korea War, North Korea attacked South Korea.
America Secretary of State Dean Acheson declared US would not guarantee Asia against any military assault.
US appealed to UN Security Council to authorize a military force to put an end to the war
US and other capable Commonwealth Countries like England and France agreed to support the UN, ordered immediate military intervention.
USSR did not protest the decision as it was boycotting UN for not recognizing CHN as UN member.
US sent Navy's 7th Fleet to patrol the Taiwan Straits to prevent Taiwan or PRC having any military confrontation.
US Navy in Taiwan Straits and US increased military aid to Phillipines raised Mao's suspicions. Mao established the Northeast Border Defence Army, Stalin supplemented this force.
North Korea had captured 90% of Korea, but pushed back by UN and US troops from Pusan.
UN forces crossed the 38th Parallel and advanced to Korea's border with PRC's Manchuria.
Kim sent a urgent request for Stalin for help, but USSR was reluctant to intervene. USSR urged PRC to help. PRC leaders were not willing to step in until USSR committed.
PRC entry into Korean War. UN troops pushed back to the 38th parallel.
US hinted that they might use the atomic bomb, but soon was dissuaded.
India's cease fire proposal. Proposal suggested PRC stopped advance at the 38th parallel and ceasefire on both sides.
US in dilemma. Supporting the proposal will suggest a soft communist stance, which Congress and US press opposed. Rejecting proposal means losing support in UN.
Mao's PRC determined to continue the war. He wants to crush "American imperialism". Captured Seoul in 1951.
Eisenhower became US new president. Determined to end the war.
Fighting has stabilized between US and China. Peace negotiations conducted.
Stalin died. New Soviet leadership. Cut military budgets.
All sides agreed on an armistice with the division of Korea along 38th parallel.
Soviets successfully tested the atomic bomb.
Official beginning of People Republic of China.
US dropped atomic bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. USSR began invasion in Manchuria.
Moscow Conference Allied Council in Japan (US, UK, USSR, Nationalist China) however General McArt has dominate control over all policies.
Japan Treaty of Peace 1. termination of military occup. 2. Japan not to claim any territory 3. Japan's compensation to civilians 4. Japan pays reparations
Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship 1. USSR recognized Chiang as Chn leader 2. Not assist CCP against KMT
Soviet offering assistance to CCP in Manchuria Chiang reported the violation of USSR to US.
US patrolled the sea off Port Arthur, which was under USSR occupation.
CCP suspended the occupation of Northeastern China.
The Marshall Mission US tried to mediate between Mao and Chiang to form coalition govt but failed.
US diplomats urged for more military aid to KMT Truman and Marshall rejected, saying it is too expensive and could result to war with USSR.
Sino-Soviet Pact (PRC + USSR) 1. cooperate in terms of defense 2. peace treaty with Japan 3. Not threaten each other 4. Consult on mutual interests *John Gaddis compared this to NATO
Publishing of NSC 68 asked US of increased military spending to contain communism.
McCarthyism intensified Senator McCarthy claimed to have 205 communists who worked for the US Department
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