September 30, 2021
For educational institutions
⟶ Updated 18 Oct 2018 ⟶
List of edits
French printer Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville began experimenting with sound in 1850s.
In 1877, Thomas Edison had success of playing back sound. He called this the phonograph.
Edison patented his design as a type of answering machine.
Chichsterson Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter developed the graphophone (sound recording device with more durable wax cylinders) in 1886.
Emile Berliner developed the gramophone which played records on a turntable. Patented in 1887. Also developed way to mass produce records.
The Victor Talking Machine Company placed hardware of a record player inside furniture and called them Victrolas (early record player with crank to play).
Electric record players were available in 1925 and replaced Victrolas
Because of radio and Great Depression, record player sales declined dramatically
Record began being made with with polyvinyl plastic due to WWII need for shellac for ammunition.
CBS introduced the long-playing record with 20 minutes of music on each side (rather than just 3-4 minutes)
RCA developed record that was good for jukeboxes
The audiotape and tape player was invented in the 1940s
Cassette tape and portable cassette players were developed.
Alan Blumin invented the stereo in 1931 even though it didn't catch on until 1958
Thomas stockham made first digital audio recordings on standard computer equipment.
Digital audio recorder was invented.
Compact discs (CDs) hit the market
CDs sales were double the sales of LP record albums
CDs made records and audiocassettes nearly obsolete
MP3 file format let recordings be compressed into smaller, more manageable files
Nappster free file sharing service brought MP3 format to popular attention
US Supreme Court ruled in favor of music industry and against Napster, declaring free file swapping illegal
Spotify came to US
American society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) was founded to collect copyright fees for music.
Television became popular
Song publishing began with marches of ragtime piano pieces in late 1880s.
Rock and roll (term for sex) became popular in the mid-1950s
In the 1950s, legal integration accompanied a cultural shift, and the music industry’s race and pop charts blurred. Blues, R&B, and rock and roll was rising from the South.
In 1956, Chuck Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven” merged rock and roll, considered low culture by many, with high culture, thus forever blurring the traditional boundary between these cultural forms
In 1956, the secretary of the North Alabama White Citizens Council bluntly spelled out the racism and white fear concerning the new blending of urban-black and rural-white culture
In the late 1950s, public outrage over rock and roll was so great that even Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis, both sons of southern preachers, became convinced that they were playing the “devil’s music.”
The payola scandals of the 1950s were another cloud over rock-and-roll music and its artists
Rock and roll became tamer and "safer" (Beach Boys and Jan&Dean). The British Invasion happened
in 1960s, black singers gained a large variety of audiences (James Brown, Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, Ike and Tina Turner, and Wilson Pickett)
Only 6 major music labels remained
Only 3 music labels remained
In 2003, the nonprofit group SoundExchange was established to collect royalties for Internet radio
The telegraph—the precursor of radio technology—was invented in the 1840s.
Radio did not emerge as a full-blown mass medium until the 1920s, though the technology that made radio possible had been evolving for years
By 1844, Morse had set up the first telegraph line between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore.
By 1861, telegraph lines ran coast to coast
By 1866, the first transatlantic cable, capable of transmitting about six words a minute, ran between Newfoundland and Ireland along the ocean floor
In 1894, Guglielmo Marconi—a twenty-year-old, self-educated Italian engineer—read Hertz’s work and understood that developing a way to send high-speed messages over great distances would transform communication, the military, and commercial shipping
In 1896, Marconi traveled to England, where he received a patent on wireless telegraphy, a form of voiceless point-to-point communication
in 1897, he formed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, later known as British Marconi, and began installing wireless technology on British naval and private commercial ships
in 1901, he relayed the first wireless signal across the Atlantic Ocean
in 1943 (a few months after he died penniless in New York), the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Marconi’s wireless patent and deemed Tesla the inventor of radio
Congress passed the Wireless Ship Act in 1910, which required that all major U.S. seagoing ships carrying more than fifty passengers and traveling more than two hundred miles off the coast be equipped with wireless equipment with a one-hundred-mile range
Radio Act of 1912 the first radio legislation passed by Congress, it addressed the problem of amateur radio operators cramming the airwaves.
By 1915, more than twenty American companies sold wireless point-to-point communication systems, primarily for use in ship-to-shore communication
in 1917, the navy closed down all amateur radio operations and took control of key radio transmitters to ensure military security
In 1921, the U.S. Commerce Department officially licensed five radio stations for operation
by early 1923, more than six hundred commercial and noncommercial stations were operating
By 1925, 5.5 million radio sets were in use across America, and radio was officially a mass medium
wax cylinder graphophone
excelda portable gramophone
radio and music teamed up to compete with TV
8-track tape--> popular in cars commercial free music boom boxes
MP3 Online Music Stores
Marketing battle between CBS and RCA because they had similar products that were not compatible. They compromised and LPs were for albums and 45s were for singles, record players wee designed for both.
song publishing continued with rock-and-roll writing teams
Eddie Cantor, Belle Baker, Sophie Tucker, and Al Jolson were very popular
Rudy Vallée and Bing Crosby became "crooners" or singers of pop standards
The Andrew Sisters made boogie-woogie style popular. Frank Sinatra became popular.
Blues emerged in 1900s
New time period
From the 1950s through the 1980s, the music industry, though powerful, consisted of a large number of competing major labels, along with numerous independent labels
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