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timeline for american indians
6 months ago
6 months ago
First, Indians had better diets and they were less likely to face starvation and hunger.Secondly, American Indian populations did not have many of the infectious diseases that were endemic in Europe.
Smallpox first struck American Indians in what is now the United States after 1520. It was not uncommon for Native people to encounter the deadly European diseases long before they encountered European people.
By the early 1700s, Europeans understood how smallpox was transmitted and had begun vaccination programs to prevent the disease.
In North America, doctors in Boston and in Charlestown began vaccination programs about 1721.
By 1800, the United States had begun smallpox vaccination programs for Indians.
In 1802, for example, Indian chiefs visiting Washington were vaccinated against smallpox using a vaccine that President Jefferson had cultured.
In 1804 the Corps of Discovery under the leadership of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark carried with them smallpox vaccine so that they could inoculate the tribes they encountered on their journey to the Pacific Ocean
In 1832, Congress appropriated $12,000 to vaccinate Indians against smallpox. The Secretary of War was to be in charge of the vaccinations.
The last major smallpox epidemic among an American Indian tribe was in 1921 when the disease struck the Indians living in the Pit River, California area.
Congress quickly reacted to this healthcare concern: in 1928, prompted by complaints about the failure of Indian health care in dealing with the smallpox epidemic,
Regarding the smallpox epidemic of 1633 which killed many Massachusett and Pawtucket, the English governor commented that the disease “cleared our title to this place.”
At Hull, four skeletons of individuals who had died in the mid-fifteenth century show fully developed tertiary syphilis.
When the Taino gathered on the shores of San Salvador Island to welcome a small party of foreign sailors on 12 October 1492, they had little idea what lay in store.
A year later, Columbus built his first town on the nearby island of Hispaniola, where the Taino numbered at least 60,000 and possibly as many as 8 million, according to some estimates. But by 1548,
Epidemics soon became a common consequence of contact. In April 1520,
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There migratory hunter-gatherers followed the great bison herds, and disease outbreaks were sometimes contained in single bands. During the smallpox epidemic of 1837 to 1838 along the Upper Missouri River,
During the late 1880s, European and American industries producing gaskets, electrical insulators, bicycle tires, and other goods created an immense demand for rubber.
Unscrupulous rubber merchants eventually enslaved “hundreds of thousands of Indians” from isolated Amazonian tribes to work as rubber tappers, according to a 1988 study by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
In 1914, new rubber plantations in Asia and Africa supplanted Amazonian rubber.
During the late 1950s and 1960s, a group of Yanomami living near the Venezuelan border were nearly wiped out by measles and another contagious disease after they made contact with the outside world.
In 2007, the president of Peru, Alan García, declared publicly that there were no isolated groups remaining in Peru’s Amazon forests.
2011 aerial footage of an uncontacted tribe near the border of Brazil and Peru.
In August 2013, forest rangers in the Peruvian Amazon videotaped the appearance of 100 members of an isolated group known as the Mashco Piro near the community of Monte Salvado.
Some in the area now think the attack was motivated by hunger. One species of Amazon peccary has become rare in the region, and turtle eggs, a dry-season staple, were in short supply in 2014 due to earlier flooding.
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