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Printmaking Timeline - Freya Hyett
Detailed timeline of all of the different types of print making
16 Oct 2017
14 Oct 2017
Digital prints are created with a computer and are usually made using an ink-jet printer although this ususally means that the prints may not all be original pieces of work. this is the method that is now most commonly used for posters and advertisement using posters and prints, this technique more closely relates to my current research. A artist that uses this technique to create poster prints is a man called Alex Ito, his works are very modern and unique.
Monotype is an interesting method of printmaking as it produced one and one only unique print as the method involves the artist draws, paints, or uses the ink to create a piece of work on a surface which then produces a negative image when applied to the paper. An artist that used this method was a man called Sam Francis, his work is very different compared to the other historical methods as it creates a more abstract marble effect rather than a strict piece of line art created through carving.
Etching is a process invented by Daniel Hopfer in Germany, the process involves a wax covered metal plate that would have a image carved into the wax, this was then placed into acid removing the lines that where exposed. A artist tat used this technique after Hopfer was a man called Ibraham El-Salahi, most of his prints tend to be in black and white cause this method only limits you to few colours therefore most of his works have this lack of colour.
Screen printing is one of the most weird and obscure printmaking methods that is still used today, screen printing begins with a stencil applied to a screen that blocks the ink in certain areas. When the ink is applied it will only onto the paper where the stencil is not where is transfers clearly.Two well known artists that used this technique are Andy Warhol and Keith Harving, both of which use a very modern and abstract style.
wood block printing is when the image is carved into a block of wood then covered in ink or paint, when the block is pressed to the paper or fabric it is then printed on to the surface leaving a negative image on the wood block and a positive image on the fabric or paper used. One of the more modern artists that still use this technique is Howard Cook. Howard Cook's work is very architectural as he usually does prints of modern structures like sky scrapers and buildings.
Engraving is very similar but more harsh that etching. The process of Engraving the artist will carve an image but however directly onto the metal plate that would also be used in etching, but can only be used the once with this process. Which is then covered in ink or paint then printed onto the page. An artist that used this technique is Albrecht Dürer, he is well known for his work called the "Rhinocervs" where he was given description of a rhino and then guessed as to it's appearance.
Lithography is seen as the most difficult methods of printmaking there is, it involves drawing directly onto a surface usually stone with an oil-based implement then covered in a water-based liquid. A artist that used this method is a man called Robert Motherwell his works are very interesting and modern as well as something that could be used within an poster that is used for advertisement.
Photography was invented in 1826, the method involved ,a now as we see it, a very old fashioned camera to take the pictures these imaged where then processed using certain types of liquid in a room that was pitch black or with a non effective light. Most of the images taken then where in black and white and grey, although the modern camera can capture in all colours and tones. The modern photo is now very commonly used within posters and advertisements and is connected strongly with my research.
Transfer is a term for transferring one image from one surface to another, by rubbing, tracing or pressing. This technique is very far from the fine art side of printmaking. Some examples include grave stone rubbings and carbon copies. An artist that uses this technique of printmaking is a man called Leonardo Drew who's work is very modern but also natural.
Linocut printing is similar to wood block printing, as the print is also created through the process of carving into an object and then putting Ink or paint onto the lino then placing it onto the paper creating again a positive image of the negative carving on the lino. A vaguely modern artist who used this technique is called Sybil Andrews, her works used many different types of ink to with her linos creating very colourful pieces of work.
Intaglio printmaking emerged in Europe well after the woodcut print, with the earliest known surviving examples being undated designs for playing cards made in Germany, using drypoint technique, probably in the late 1430s. by an image being cut into the surface of a plate. Traditionally the matrix is copper, zinc or other metal and the cutting is made with sharp hand tools or by using acid.
As with engraving, this is a process in which marks are made on a plate using a sharp, pointed instrument. Unlike engraving, in which small amounts of metal are completely removed as the lines are incised, drypoint is characterised by the curl of displaced metal, called the burr, which forms as the line is cut. When inked, the burr creates a distinctive velvety appearance.
Mezzotint is a very beautiful but time-consuming technique, which was most popular in the 18th and 19th centuries for portraiture and reproducing other works of art. In creating a mezzotint, first the entire metal plate is roughened by marking fine lines into the plate in all directions with a rocker Tones are created by burnishing or scraping into the plate
Aquatint is an etching method introduced in the mid-17th Century to create a more subtle tonal range than could be achieved with line etching techniques. Powdered rosin is applied and heated onto a metal plate; the metal that remains exposed around the melted drops of rosin is bitten in an acid bath, creating a pitted, grainy surface.
Spit bite Aquatint is n intaglio method of painting strong acid directly onto the aquatint ground of an etching plate. Depending on the amount of time the acid is left on the plate, light to dark tones can be achieved. To control the acid application, saliva, or gum arabic can be used. Traditionally a clean brush was coated with saliva, dipped into acid and brushed onto the ground, hence the term "spitbite".
Photogravure is a photographic technique used with aquatint. The metal plate is heated and dusted with a fine rosin for an aquatint ground. In a darkroom, the image is exposed from a photo positive transparency onto a sensitised gravure carbon tissue or film. This image, in turn, is transferred to the metal plate.
Pochoir is a direct method for hand coloring through a stencil. The stencil itself is usually knife-cut from thin-coated paper, paperboard, plastic, or metal. A stencil and stencil-brush may be used to make multicolour prints or to add color passages to a print.
Collagraph is a complex method of printing and can be made from almost any combination of materials, collaged into an image and printed either as a relief print or intaglio. Surfaces can also be textured with acrylic paints.
Multiple block wood block printmaking is where the design is divided among several blocks, each to print a different color, with or without overlaps. Those areas cut away in all blocks will not print at all and thus provide highlights of the natural color of the paper used, the light of the “light-dark” technique.
Carborundum is a very hard mixture consisting primarily of silicon carbide; it is used as an abrasive and, in powdered form, in a method of engraving invented by Henri Goetz. He used it to get a dotted effect by sprinkling it over a metal plate which was then pulled through a press, which got the grains to push into the metal.
Cliché-verre also known as glass print in some cases is a glass plate is covered with ink or paint and a design is drawn through it with a stylus or brush, producing a negative image. A piece of photo-sensitiive paper is placed under neath it and it is then exposed to light. A positive, photographic image appears on the paper.
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