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8 months ago
There has been a long term decline in the number of births since 1900. Birth rate of 28.7.
The birth rate fell sharply.
Highest birth rate in the UK. Highest number of children per woman in the UK. 2.95 children.
Reasons for decline 1. Changes in women's position, has led to a changed mind set among women resulting in fewer children (Sarah Harper) 2. In previous decades the infant mortality rate was higher meaning parents had more children to replace those they lost. 3. Policy/ Law changes and change in norms means that parents now feel less willing to have a large family. 4.Child centredness= Quantity over quality (fewer children means more attention and resources on the ones you do have.)
The number of children per woman rose to 1.83. However still lower than 1960s when it was 2.95
Women are postponing having children until 30 years old- average age.
More women are remaining childless than in the past.
In 2016 the birth rate fell to 12.2
16th Century- UK as a net exporter -more people moved out of the UK -going to places such as USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
1900-1939/1945 Largest immigrant group were Irish. Immigrants were mostly white and they came to England for economic reasons up until WW2.
1950s to 1970s Mainly non white immigrants to the UK from Caribbean, South Asia and India. UK becomes more diverse and leads to diversity of family structures.
There was a move towards multi-cultural educational policies.
Since the 1970s UK state has made it harder for immigrants to acquire rights.
1962- 1990 Sever restrictions on non white immigration.
Castells and Kosack argues that encouraging workers to blame migrants for social problems benefits capitalism by creating a racially divided working class and preventing united action in defence of their shared interests.
Migration identities. Eade found that second generation Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain created hierarchical identities.
Before the 1990s immigration to the UK came from fairly narrow range of former British colonies. Since the 1990s globalisation has led to 'super diversity'.
Castells argues that assimilation policies are counter productive.
Eriksen- Globalisation has created more diverse migration patterns.
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