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Cell Biology timeline
Charles Darwin releases Origin of the species- suggesting the idea of variation.
Gregor Mendel publishes his paper- to do with 'unknown' characteristics that affect pea plant colour
Friedrich Miescher discovers "nuclein" from white blood cells in bandages.
Scientist 'rediscover' Mendel's work, creating a group of ‘Mendelians’ who originally clashed with Darwinism, as in one theory genetics blended, and in the other they did not.
Sir Archibald Edward Garrod associates genetic disorders/diseases with Mendel's work, begining the ideas of human inheritence
The discovery of the Holocaust obliterates any remaining supporters of the Eugenics Movement
Journal of Experimental Medicine, published by Oswald Avery, showing that DNA is the fundamental element in inheritence and variation.
Erwin Chargaff creates "Chargaff's rules"- that the amount of adenine is equal to guuarnine, and thynine to cytosine, and that the composition of DNA varies between species
Rosalind Franklin produced the first high resolution pictures of DNA fibres
James Watson and Francis Crick discover the double helix structure of DNA
George Gamow creates the “RNA Tie Club”, in which each member would put forward their ideas about how nucleotide bases were transformed into proteins by the body's cells.
Cytogenetics appreciated as a science, as an additional chromosome 21 is linked to Down's Syndrome.
Marshall Nirenberg determines which bases made up each codon, (3 RNA/DNA Nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis)
Frederick Sanger discovers how DNA is sequenced, through his work on the structure/sequence of proteins and RNA.
Huntington's disease is able to be mapped and found of a DNA strand through DNA polymorphisms (any difference in the nucleotide sequence between individuals.)
The Human Genome Project begins- its intent being to record the 13.2 billion letters of the human genome (the complete set of genes in an organism.
The first bacterium genome is sequenced, Haemophilus Influenzae
Cloning is achieved through growing a clone of Dolly the sheep through empty egg cells, and the nucleus of a breast cell
'Bermuda Principles' established -agreeing that genome sequence data should be made freely available and given to the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO)
The first Human chromosome - 33.5 million "letters,"- are recorded
Scientists discover that every fruit fly cell contains 13,601 genes, and decode them
Mouse is the first mammal to have its genome decoded
The Human Genome Project is completed- Human DNA is decoded
DNA Worldwide and Eurofins Forensic discover identical twins have differences in their genetic makeup
A new kind of DNA test allows for the screening of prenatal abnormalities without the kind of invasive procedures needed in the past.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015: Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar win for finding how DNA is repaired
DNA App Store (Helix)- An online store for information about your genes making it cheap and easy to learn more about your health risks and predispositions.
Jeremy Kyle releases home DNA kit to test paternity.
Sir Francis Galton releases 'Hereditary Genius' suggesting that "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans.
Albrecht Kossel isolated the non-protein component of "nuclein", nucleic acid, and later isolated its five primary nucleobases
Phoebus Levene identified the base, sugar, and phosphate nucleotide unit
William Astbury produced the first X-ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.
Hans Dreisch split a fertilized sea urchin egg which was at the two-cell division stage by hand. Each cell subsequently developed into two small but identical sea urchin larva.
The US state of Indiana passes the world's first mandatory sterilization law.
The Nuremburg laws are passed. An estimated 500,000 eugenic abortions have been performed in Germany.
Thomas Hunt Morgan conducts experiments showing that genes are located linearly along chromosomes.
Genetic factor in bacteria transferred by Frederick Griffith, in an experiment with mice
August Weismann conducted experiments by breeding mice whose tails had been surgically removed. Because it had no effect on offspring, it challenged the theories of pangenesis and Lamarckism, which held that changes to an organism during its lifetime could be inherited by its descendants.
Alfred Sturtevant makes the first genetic map of a chromosome
The Eugenics Movement- People increasingly looked at controlling hereditary and breeding, which eventually developed into racism
The Human Genome Project
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