jan 1, 1863 - Emancipation Proclamation
AKA: Proclamation 95
A presidential proclamation and executive order signed September 22, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln effective January 1, 1863. It freed the previously enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states (more than 3.5 million slaves). As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, either by running away across Union lines or through the advance of federal troops, the slave was permanently free. Ultimately, the Union victory brought the proclamation into effect in all of the former Confederacy. The remaining slaves, those in the areas not in revolt, were freed by state action, or by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in December 1865.
The Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been a major issue that led to the war, Lincoln's only stated goal at the start of the war was to maintain the Union. The Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort. Establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France.
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History of Leadership In The States