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Early Ideas About Matter
Garrett Peppers _ Student - WakeMensAcademy
3 months ago
Empedocles proposed that all matter is made up of four elements: fire, air, water, and earth.
Democritus proposed that all matter is made up of many small things, called atomos.
Evangelista Torricelli noticed that air actually had weight, and therefore must be made up of something physical. Daniel Bernoulli took this, and proposed that air was made up of many tiny particles that were so small that we could not see them, and that we couldn't feel them just because they were so small that they moved when we pushed our hand through it.
Joseph Priestley conducted an experiment with Mercury calx, where when heated it would turn into Mercury, but it would also release a gas that had different properties from Mercury calx. From this experiment, he determined that substances could combine with each other to form new substances with different properties.
Antoine Lavoisier did lots of experiments with the newly discovered gas that John Priestley experimented with. He renamed it oxygen, greek for acid maker, because the gas caused some substances to become acidic. When he combined this air with phlogiston, and burned it, he noticed that the reaction caused water droplets to form on the container, and therefore renamed phlogiston to hydrogen, greek for water maker. He conducted similar experiments with other materials, and noticed that the mass gaine
John Dalton took all of the previous experiments and experience, and he combined it into several theories. His Theories were as follows: 1. All matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements have different properties 3. Chemical reactions involve the combination of atoms, not the destruction of atoms 4. When elements react to form compounds, they react in defined, whole-number ratios
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