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Colombia/Sri Lanka Timeline
8 months ago
First Draft of Timeline
8 months ago
Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) tasked by the government to look into human rights abuses in the civil war since 2002.
UN states that both sides of the civil war committed "atrocities agaisnt civilians." Calls for an investigation.
LLRC publishes report with numerous recommendations that are greatly welcomed, yet badly implemented.
UNHCR passes resolution calling for the Sri Lankan government to investigate potential war crimes committed during the last years of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
UN Report says Sri Lanka's government intimidated UN investigators in 2009.
UNHCR resolution calls for Sri Lanka to investigate potential war crimes during its civil war.
Upon finishing a visit to Sri Lanka, UN Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claims that Sri Lanka was compromising its democracy and rule of law.
President appoints the Paranamaga Commission to investigate disappearances in the north and east of the country (between 1983 and 2009).
UNHCR mandates OCHR to investigate possible crimes committed in the civil war since 2002.
President declares that UN human rights investigators will not be given entry to Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka commits to a "four-pillar transitional justice programme" through a co-sponsored UNHCR resolution.
In an unprecedented move, the government states that 26,000 people are missing from previous civil conflicts.
Sri Lankan governments sets the goal of being entirely demilitarized by 2018.
Law that creates an office to search for the thousands of missing people due to civil conflicts is passed.
Prime Minister's office's Secretariat to Coordinate Reconciliation Mechanisms and the Consultation Task Force of Reconciliation Mechanisms (CTF) consults with the public in regards to transitional justice mechanisms. Before consultation is complete and in a rushed manner, parliament passes a bill to create the Office of Missing Persons.
New constitutional reform process begins.
Right to Information Act passes into law.
The CTF releases its report.
ELN and EPL created.
11 Judges and dozens other killed by the M-19 after it breaks into the Palace of Justice.
Government and M-19 agree on a peace deal. M-19 established as a legal party.
New constitution established, prohibits extradition to other countries.
Pablo Escobar killed.
Andrés Pastrana Arango elected president, begins peace talks with guerilla groups.
FARC granted a safe haven in the south-east of the country as a sign of goodwill to accelerate peace talks.
Peace talks begin officially, but are sporadic in nature. FARC's leader meets with Colombian president Pastrana.
Bush boosts US aid to Colombian government forces (9 billion dollars) and the CIA and NSA conduct covert operations that kill a minimum of 24 rebel leaders.
Peace talks with FARC frozen several times.
Significant exchange of prisoners between Farc and the government (359 soldiers and police by Farc and 14 rebels by the government).
San Francisco agreement signed, which commit the government and Farc to agree on a future ceasefire.
Safe haven extended to April 2002 and FARC's ceasefire schedule accepted by the government.
Kidnapping of presidential candidate Ìngrid Betancourt by Farc.
Peace talks that started in 1999 end without signficant advances, Pastrana blames Farc's hijacking of an airplane as the "final straw." Government ends Farc's safe territory and declares war on FARC.
Bomb in Bogota kills 20.
Uribe is sworn in as president and declares a state of emergency.
AUC starts its disarmament.
AUC begins talks with the government.
Justice and Peace Law passed: reduces jail time for guerilla fighters who turn themselves in. Also provides reparations for victims of previous crimes.
Peace talks with the ELN begin in Cuba.
Uribe elected for a second term.
Government releases FARC prisoners with the objective of FARC reciprocation, but FARC refuses to release government prisoners and says it would only do so if the government re-installed a demilitarized zone.
Due to Chavez' mediation, FARC releases Clara Rojas and Conseulo Gonzalez.
Colombia conducts an operation against FARC in Ecuadorian territory, creating a diplomatic crisis with Ecuador and Venezuela.
Colombia extradites 14 paramilitary leaders to the US connected to drug-trafficking.
FARC declares that its founder has died.
Ìngrid Betancourt rescued by government forces.
Several high-profile prisoners released by Farc.
Government offers peace talks on the condition that Farc commences a ceasefire and stops "criminal activities."
Colombia grants the US access to seven military bases.
Chavez orders troops to be ready for war against Colombia and sends 15,000 troops to the border.
Court sentences army general Jaime Uscategui to 40 years in prison for aiding paramilitary groups in massacring civilians in 1997.
Farc and ELN agree to stop fighting each other and focus on fighting the government.
Venezuela cuts diplomatic ties with Colombia over an accusation of giving sanctuary to Farc rebels.
Juan Manuel Santos becomes president, responds to Farc's offer for peace talks by demanding Farc releases all remaining hostages first.
Colombia re-establishes diplomatic ties with Venezuela.
Farc escalates violence and the army kills a senior Farc officer.
Farc releases numerous hostages as a sign of goodwill.
Jorge Noguera, previous intelligence head and ally of ex-president Uribe, setenced to 25 years in prison for aiding "paramilitary death squads."
Protests across the country against FARC.
Colombia passes the Victims' Law: provides mechanisms for land restitution, truth-seeking and reparations.
FARC announces it will stop conducting kidnappings.
FARC announces a unilateral ceasefire.
Victim's Agreement signed between the government and FARC, with the objective of providing truth and justice for victims of grave crimes and to ensure non-recurrence).
Bilateral ceasefire between FARC forces and the government announced.
Peace deal between the government and FARC reached.
Voters reject the FARC peace deal in a referendum.
Revised peace deal signed between the government and FARC.
FARC is formaly disbanded.
Temporary ceasefire with the ELN is established.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formed.
First Eelam War begins.
First peace talks between the government and the LTTE are unsuccessful.
Indian troops withdraw from Sri Lanka.
Second Eelam War begins.
LTTE gains control of Jaffna.
Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi killed by an explosion carried out by the LTTE.
Fighting commences in the east of the country, resulting in massive displacement.
First presidential commission to address disapperances is set up.
LTTE kills Sri Lankan President Premadasa in a bomb attack.
Several commissions on disappearances set up, resulting in compensation for the families of thousands but only a few low-level convictions of military members. Many of the commissions' "recommendations are not fully addressed."
New round of peace talks with the LTTE begins.
Peace agreement between the government and the Kachin Independence Army is reached.
Third Eelam War commences.
New significant offensive of the military, culminating in the fall of Jaffna to the government over 1995 and 1996.
New Human Rights Commission in Sri Lanka created.
Commissions set up in 1994 (to look into disappearances) end their mandate.
"In a landmark judgement," the Human Rights Commission finds six (of eleven) soldiers guilty of raping and murdering an 18-year-old girl. They are given the death penalty.
UN says that "Sri Lanka has the second highest number of disappearances in the world."
Ceasefire deal signed between Sri Lanka's government and the LTTE.
LTTE leaves peace talks.
30,000 killed by a tsunami.
Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar assassinated. The police blame the LTTE and a state of emergency is established.
Quarrels between the government and the LTTE over how to share tsunami aid.
The LTTE conducts its first attacks since the 2002 ceasefire.
In peace talks in Switzerland, the government and rebels agree to lower the fighting. However, new talks meant to occur a few months after are postponed due to disagreements.
Negotiations in Norway fail.
The LTTE cut the water supply of 60,000 people. Consequently, the government launches its first major attacks against the LTTE since the ceasefire of 2002 was implemented.
Talks in Geneva fail.
Police in capital expel hundres of Tamils due to alleged security problems. A domestic court decides to prohibit such expulsions.
S. P. Thamilselvan, a senior LTTE commander, is killed in a government operation.
Sri Lankan military pushes the LTTE out of the eastern regions of the country.
2002 Ceasefire officially ends.
New government offensive takes place, resulting in a significant number of displaced people.
International panel looking into human rights abuses, having been invited by the government, leaves the country, with a senior leader blaming the government for hindering their work.
UN withdraws from northern and eastern Sri Lanka due to government refusal to provide security to UN personnel.
Military says it entered LTTE's capital, Kilinochchi.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights says that both sides of the civil war committed war crimes.
UN claims about 6,500 civilians were killed in the Sri Lankan's 3-month operations against the LTTE.
LTTE establishes a unilateral ceasefire, which is ignored by the government, who demands they surrender.
Military makes signficant progress in finishing off the LTTE's forces. The army takes control of all of Sri Lanka and LTTE chief Velupillai Prabhakaran is killed.
Government announces an official end to Sri Lanka's Vivil War.
UNHCR Resolution favorable to the Sri Lankan government is passed despite "widespread criticism" over its human rights abuses during military operations in the recent past.
EU suspends Sri Lankan trade terms due to past human rights abuses.
UN sets up a panel of experts to look into human rights and international law violations in the end of the civil war.
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez invites Farc representatives to Caracas to reach an agreement over FARC-held Colombian hostages.
Diplomatic crisis between Colombia and Venezuela.
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