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Tsar Alexander II is assassinated by a member of the radical group People’s Will. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III, who enacts anti-terrorism measures that curb civil rights and freedom of the press.
Germany declares war on Russia; Russia enters World War I.
Lenin sends a telegram to communists in Penza, Central Russia, complaining about uprisings in the area and calling for the public execution of 100 kulaks (wealthy peasants).
An armistice between Russia and the Central Powers is signed, and Russian leaves World War I.
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates and also removes his son from the succession. A Provisional Government is formed to replace the tsarist government
Tsar Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks.
October Manifesto – Tsar Nicholas II promises civil liberties (such as freedom of speech) and an elected parliament (Duma).
Russian minister of war Alexander Kerensky launches an offensive against Austria-Hungary forces. Although the Russian effort is initially successful, the soldiers soon refuse to leave their trenches and fight due to low morale caused by the Revolution. Many soldiers return home to take part in redistribution of land.
Tsar Alexander II passes the Emancipation Edict, ending serfdom in Russia (but keeps peasants tied to the land through continuing labor obligations).
By the beginning of 1921, money has lost 96% of its pre-war value; industrial production has fallen to 10% of its 1913 level. The population of Petrograd has fallen from 2.5 million in 1917 to 600,000 in 1920
Tsar Alexander III dies after a sudden illness; his son Nicholas II assumes the throne
Bloody Sunday – Troops and police open fire on a peaceful demonstration outside the Winter Palace and elsewhere in St Petersburg, killing and injuring around 1,000 people. The press blames Nicholas II.
Introduction of Lenin’s ‘New Economic Policy’ (NEP) – a little bit of Capitalism mixed in.
Famine in Russia kills between 375,000 and 400,000 and affects millions more
Civil War begins between Bolsheviks (reds) and Mensheviks (whites)
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