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History of Criminalistics
11 months ago
Eugene Francois Vidoc (1810) Was arrested → made a deal with the police establishing first detective force - Sûreté of Paris created
Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1813) "Father of Toxicology" Published treatise on poison - Examines pieces of evidence such as corpses and food items for poison content.
Henry Goddard (1835) Worked for Scotland Yard Became the first person to use physical analysis to connect a bullet to the murder weapon.
William Hershal (1856) Uses thumbprints on documents to identify workers
Rudolph Virchow (1879) German pathologist One of the first to both study hair and recognize its limitations
Alphonse Bertillon (1879) French Develops system to identify people using body measures
Henry Faulds (1880) Uses fingerprints to eliminate an innocent burglary suspect Suggested fingerprints at scene of crime can identify the offender One of the first recorded uses of fingerprints to solve a crime Used fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect and indicate a perpetrator in a Tokyo burglary
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1887) Wrote the Sherlock Holmes novels - Sherlock used forensic science to solve crimes
Sir Francis Galton (1892) Published his book on fingerprints and their use in solving crime
Albert Osborne (1910) Publishes seminal treatise "Questioned Documents"
Edmund Locard (1910) Started first police crime laboratory in Lyon, France - At judicial request, an autopsy examination can be carried out by a forensic medicine expert - Internal and external examination of the corpse to determine cause of death Locard principle- Every contact leaves a trace
Karl Landsteiner (1900) Identifies human blood groups
Karl Landsteiner (1940) Describes Rh blood groups
Sir Lomer Gouin (1913) Set up first North American forensic medicine laboratory - Facilitated police investigations through scientific means - Helped justice system pursue criminals
Max Frei- Sulzer (1950) Founder of Swiss criminalistics laboratory - Develops the trace lift method of collecting trace evidence
Sir Edward Richard Henry (1896) Develops prototype fingerprint classification system - Currently used in Europe and the United States
Keith Simpson (1948) Launches the science of bite mark analysis - Examines the bite mark on a dead woman
Sir Alec Jeffreys (1984) Discovered that each person has different DNA - Created technique of genetic fingerprinting (using blood, bone, hair, saliva, skin, sweat, semen, etc to match DNA)
1932 FBI creates a crime laboratory
1977 FBI introduced the start of its Automated Fingerprint Identification System - First computerized scans of fingerprints
1992 FBI contracted Mnemonic Systems to develop Drugfire - Automated imaging system compares marks left on cartridge and shell cases - Ability to compare fired bullets subsequently added
1996 FBI introduced computerized searches of fingerprint database (AFIS) - Live scan and card scan allowed interdepartmental submissions
1998 FBI database, NIDIS, enables interstate cooperation in linking crimes put into action
1999 FBI upgraded computerized fingerprint system Implemented the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) - Allows paperless submission, storage, and search capabilities directly to the national database
1999 FBI uses National Integrated Ballistics Network (NIBIN) to facilitate exchange of firearms data between Drugfire and IBIS by signing Memorandum of Understanding with ATF
1990 FBI used a pilot project to serve 14 state and local laboratories (also known as CODIS)
DNA Identification Act of 1994 - Gives FBI authority to establish a National DNA Index System (NDIS) for law enforcement
2017 Over 190 public law enforcement laboratories participate in NDIS across US - Over 90 law enforcement labs in 50+ countries use CODIS software for own database initiatives
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