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5000 BC The Sumer form the first towns and cities. They use irrigation to farm large areas of land.
2330 BC Sargon I of the Akkadians conquers most of the Sumerian city states and creates the world's first empire, the Akkadian Empire.
2100 BC After the Akkadian Empire crumbles, the Sumerians once again gain power. The city of Ur is rebuilt.
2000 BC Sumerian empire disappears
1900 BC The Assyrians rise to power in northern Mesopotamia.
1792 BC Hammurabi becomes king of Babylon. He establishes the Code of Hammurabi and Babylon soon takes over much of Mesopotamia.
1750 BC Hammurabi dies and the First Babylonian Empire begins to fall apart.
1225 BC The Assyrians capture Babylon.
626 BC Ashurbanipal dies and Assyria begins to crumble.
616 BC Control of Babylon went back from the Assyrians. The neo-Babylonian empire begins.
539 BC Cyrus the Great takes the city of Babylon and lets the Jewish people return to Israel.
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